Allinea DDT and MAP
User Guide
Version v4.2.1-36484

Allinea DDT/MAP v4.2.1-36484
Contents
Contents
1
1
Introduction
9
1.1
Allinea DDT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.2
Allinea MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.3
Purchasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.4
Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
1.5
Obtaining Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
2
Installation
12
2.1
Linux/Unix Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2.1.1
Graphical Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2.1.2
Text-mode Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.2
Mac Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.3
Windows Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.4
Licence Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
2.5
Floating Licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
3
Connecting to a Remote System
16
3.1
Remote Launch Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
3.2
Remote Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
3.3
Using X Forwarding or VNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
4
DDT: Starting
20
4.1
Running a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
4.1.1
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
4.1.2
MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
4.1.3
OpenMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
4.1.4
CUDA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
4.1.5
UPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.1.5.1
GCC UPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.1.5.2
Berkeley UPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.1.6
Memory Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.1.7
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.1.8
Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
4.2
remote-exec Required By Some MPIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
4.3
Debugging Single-Process Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
4.4
Debugging OpenMP Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
4.5
Manual Launching of Multi-Process Non-MPI programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
4.6
Debugging MPMD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
4.6.1
Debugging MPMD Programs in Compatibility mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
4.7
Opening Core Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
4.8
Attaching To Running Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
4.8.1
Automatically Detected MPI Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
4.8.2
Attaching To A Subset Of An MPI Job
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
4.8.3
Manual Process Selection
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
4.8.4
Configuring Attaching to Remote Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
4.8.5
Using DDT Command-Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
4.9
Starting A Job In A Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
c 2014 Allinea Software Ltd.
1

Allinea DDT/MAP v4.2.1-36484
4.10 Using Custom MPI Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
4.11 Starting DDT From A Job Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
5
DDT: Overview
38
5.1
Saving And Loading Sessions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
5.2
Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
5.3
Project Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
5.3.1
Application / External Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
5.4
Finding Lost Source Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
5.5
Finding Code Or Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
5.5.1
Find File or Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
5.5.2
Find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
5.5.3
Find in Files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
5.6
Jump To Line / Jump To Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
5.7
Static Analysis
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
5.8
Editing Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
5.9
Version Control Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
6
DDT: Controlling Program Execution
45
6.1
Process Control And Process Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
6.1.1
Detailed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
6.1.2
Summary View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
6.2
Focus Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
6.2.1
Overview of changing focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
6.2.2
Process Group Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
6.2.3
Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
6.2.4
Code Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
6.2.5
Parallel Stack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
6.2.6
Playing and Stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
6.2.7
Step Threads Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
6.2.8
Stepping Threads Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
6.3
Hotkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
6.4
Starting, Stopping and Restarting a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
6.5
Stepping Through A Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
6.6
Stop Messages
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
6.7
Setting Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
6.7.1
Using the Source Code Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
6.7.2
Using the Add Breakpoint Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
6.7.3
Pending Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
6.7.4
Conditional Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
6.8
Suspending Breakpoints
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
6.9
Deleting A Breakpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
6.10 Loading And Saving Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
6.11 Default Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
6.12 Synchronizing Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
6.13 Setting A Watchpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
6.14 Tracepoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
6.14.1 Setting a Tracepoint
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
6.14.2 Tracepoint Output
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
6.15 Version Control Breakpoints and Tracepoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
6.16 Examining The Stack Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
6.17 Align Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
c 2014 Allinea Software Ltd.
2

Allinea DDT/MAP v4.2.1-36484
6.18 ``Where are my processes?'' - Viewing Stacks in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
6.18.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
6.18.2 The Parallel Stack View in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
6.19 Browsing Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
6.20 Simultaneously Viewing Multiple Files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
6.21 Signal Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
6.21.1 Custom Signal Handling (Signal Dispositions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
6.21.2 Sending Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
7
DDT: Viewing Variables And Data
66
7.1
Sparklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
7.2
Current Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
7.3
Local Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
7.4
Arbitrary Expressions And Global Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
7.4.1
Fortran Intrinsics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
7.4.2
Changing the language of an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
7.4.3
Macros and #defined Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
7.5
Help With Fortran Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
7.6
Viewing Complex Numbers in Fortran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
7.7
C++ STL Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
7.8
Custom Pretty Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
7.8.1
Example
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
7.9
Viewing Array Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
7.10 UPC Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
7.11 Changing Data Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
7.12 Viewing Numbers In Different Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
7.13 Examining Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
7.14 Multi-Dimensional Arrays in the Variable View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
7.15 Multi Dimensional Array Viewer (MDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
7.15.1 Array Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
7.15.2 Filtering by Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
7.15.3 Distributed Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
7.15.4 Advanced: How Arrays Are Laid Out in the Data Table
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
7.15.5 Auto Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
7.15.6 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
7.15.7 Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
7.15.8 Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
7.16 Cross-Process and Cross-Thread Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
7.17 Assigning MPI Ranks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
7.18 Viewing Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
7.19 Interacting Directly With The Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
8
DDT: Program Input And Output
83
8.1
Viewing Standard Output And Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
8.2
Displaying Selected Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
8.3
Saving Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
8.4
Sending Standard Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
9
DDT: Logbook
85
9.1
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
9.2
Comparison Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
c 2014 Allinea Software Ltd.
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Allinea DDT/MAP v4.2.1-36484
10 DDT: Message Queues
87
10.1 Viewing The Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
10.2 Interpreting the Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
10.3 Deadlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
11 DDT: Memory Debugging
90
11.1 Enabling Memory Debugging
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
11.2 CUDA Memory Debugging
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
11.3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
11.3.1 Static Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
11.3.2 Available Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
11.3.3 Changing Settings at Run Time
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
11.4 Pointer Error Detection and Validity Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
11.4.1 Library Usage Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
11.4.2 View Pointer Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
11.4.3 Writing Beyond An Allocated Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
11.4.4 Fencepost Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
11.4.5 Suppressing an Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
11.5 Current Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
11.5.1 Detecting Leaks when using Custom Allocators/Memory Wrappers . . . . . . .
98
11.6 Memory Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
12 DDT: Checkpointing
100
12.1 What Is Checkpointing?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
12.2 How To Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
12.3 Restoring A Checkpoint
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
13 DDT: Using and Writing Plugins
101
13.1 Supported Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
13.2 Installing a Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
13.3 Using a Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
13.4 Writing a Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
13.5 Plugin Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
14 DDT: CUDA GPU Debugging
105
14.1 Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
14.2 Preparing to Debug GPU Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
14.3 Launching the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
14.4 Controlling GPU threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
14.4.1 Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
14.4.2 Stepping
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
14.4.3 Running and Pausing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
14.5 Examining GPU Threads and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
14.5.1 Selecting GPU Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
14.5.2 Viewing GPU Thread Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
14.5.3 Understanding Kernel Progress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
14.5.4 Source Code Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
14.6 GPU Devices Information
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
14.7 Attaching to running GPU applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
14.8 Known Issues / Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
14.8.1 Debugging Multiple GPU processes (CUDA 4.0 and below) . . . . . . . . . . . 110
14.8.2 Using Multiple GPU processes (CUDA 4.1 and above) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
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14.8.3 Thread control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
14.8.4 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
14.8.5 Pre sm 20 GPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
14.8.6 Workaround for unsupported gcc versions with nvcc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
14.8.7 Debugging Multiple GPU processes on Cray limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
14.9 GPU Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
14.9.1 CAPS HMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
14.9.2 Cray OpenACC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
14.9.3 PGI Accelerators and CUDA Fortran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
15 DDT: Offline Debugging
114
15.1 Using Offline Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
15.2 Offline Report Output (HTML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
15.3 Offline Report Output (Plain Text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
16 DDT: Using DDT with the VisIt Visualization Tool
117
16.1 Support for VisIt
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
16.2 Patching and Building VisIt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
16.3 Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
16.4 Enabling VisIt Support in DDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
16.5 Setting Visualization Points (Vispoints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
16.6 Using Vispoints in DDT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
16.7 Returning to DDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
16.8 Focusing on a Domain & VisIt Picks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
16.9 Using DDT with a pre-instrumented program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
17 MAP: Starting
123
17.1 Preparing a Program for Profiling
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
17.1.1 Debugging Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
17.1.2 .eh-frame-hdr section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
17.1.3 Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
17.1.4 Static Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
17.1.5 Static Linking on Cray X-Series Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
17.1.6 Manual Dynamic Linking on Cray X-Series systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
17.2 Profiling a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
17.2.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
17.2.2 MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
17.2.3 Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
17.2.4 Profiling
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
17.3 remote-exec Required By Some MPIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
17.4 Profiling Single-Process Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
17.5 Sending Standard Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
17.6 Starting A Job In A Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
17.7 Using Custom MPI Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
17.8 Starting MAP From A Job Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
17.9 MAP Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
18 MAP: Program Output
137
18.1 Viewing Standard Output And Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
18.2 Displaying Selected Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
18.3 Saving Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
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19 MAP: Source Code View
138
20 MAP: Parallel Stack View
139
21 MAP: Project Files View
140
22 MAP: Metrics View
141
22.1 Detecting MPI imbalance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
23 Running MAP from the Command Line
145
23.1 Profiling MPMD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
24 Configuration
146
24.1 Configuration files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.1.1 Site Wide Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.1.2 Converting Legacy Site-Wide Configuration Files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.1.3 Using Shared Home Directories on Multiple Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.1.4 Using a Shared Installation on Multiple Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.1.5 Importing Legacy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.2 Integration With Queuing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
24.3 Template Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
24.3.1 The Template Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
24.3.2 Configuring Queue Commands
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
24.3.3 Configuring How Job Size is Chosen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
24.3.4 Quick Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
24.4 Connecting to remote programs (remote-exec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
24.5 Optional Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
24.5.1 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
24.5.2 Job Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
24.5.3 Code Viewer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
24.5.4 Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
24.5.5 VisIt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
25 The Licence Server
154
25.1 Running The Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
25.2 Running DDT/MAP Clients
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
25.3 Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.4 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.5 Adding A New Licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.7 Example Of Access Via A Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
25.8 Querying Current Licence Server Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
25.9 Licence Server Handling Of Lost DDT/MAP Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
A Supported Platforms
159
A.1 DDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
A.2 MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
B MPI Distribution Notes and Known Issues
161
B.1 Bull MPI
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
B.2 HP MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
B.3 Intel MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
B.4 MPICH 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
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B.5 MPICH 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
B.6 IBM PE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
B.7 MVAPICH 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
B.8 MVAPICH 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
B.9 Open MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
B.10 SGI Altix / SGI MPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
B.11 Cray MPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
B.11.1 Using DDT with Cray ATP (the Abnormal Termination Process) . . . . . . . . . 165
B.12 Berkeley UPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
B.13 SLURM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
C Compiler Notes and Known Issues
167
C.1 AMD OpenCL compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
C.2 Berkeley UPC Compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
C.3 Cray Compiler Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
C.4 GNU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
C.4.1
GNU UPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
C.5 IBM XLC/XLF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
C.6 Intel Compilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
C.7 Pathscale EKO compilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
C.8 Portland Group Compilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
D Platform Notes and Known Issues
172
D.1 GNU/Linux Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
D.1.1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
D.1.2
SUSE Linux
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
D.2 IBM AIX Systems
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
D.3 IBM Blue Gene/Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
D.4 Intel Xeon Phi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
D.4.1
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
D.4.2
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
D.4.3
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
E General Troubleshooting and Known Issues
179
E.1
General Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
E.1.1
Problems Starting the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
E.1.2
Problems Reading this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
E.2
Starting a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
E.2.1
Problems Starting Scalar Programs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
E.2.2
Problems Starting Multi-Process Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
E.2.3
No Shared Home Directory
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
E.2.4
DDT/MAP says it can't find your hosts or the executable . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
E.2.5
The progress bar doesn't move and DDT/MAP 'times out' . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
E.2.6
The progress bar gets close to half the processes connecting and then stops and
DDT/MAP 'times out'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
E.3
Attaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
E.3.1
The system does not allow attaching to processes (Ubuntu) . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
E.3.2
The system does not allow attaching to processes (Fedora, Red Hat) . . . . . . . 181
E.3.3
Running processes don't show up in the attach window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
E.4
Source Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
E.4.1
No variables or line number information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
E.4.2
Source code does not appear when you start DDT / MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
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E.5
Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
E.5.1
Output to stderr is not displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
E.6
Controlling a Program
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
E.6.1
Program jumps forwards and backwards when stepping through it . . . . . . . . 183
E.6.2
DDT sometimes stop responding when using the Step Threads Together option . 183
E.7
Evaluating Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
E.7.1
Some variables cannot be viewed when the program is at the start of a function . 183
E.7.2
Incorrect values printed for Fortran array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
E.7.3
Evaluating an array of derived types, containing multiple-dimension arrays . . . 183
E.7.4
C++ STL types are not pretty printed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
E.7.5
The Fortran Module Browser is missing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
E.8
Memory Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
E.8.1
The View Pointer Details window says a pointer is valid but doesn't show you
which line of code it was allocated on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
E.8.2
mprotect fails error when using memory debugging with guard pages
. . 184
E.8.3
Allocations made before or during MPI Init show up in Current Memory Us-
age but have no associated stack back trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
E.8.4
Deadlock when calling printf or malloc from a signal handler
. . . . . . . 184
E.8.5
Program runs more slowly with Memory Debugging enabled . . . . . . . . . . . 185
E.9
MAP specific issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
E.9.1
My compiler is inlining functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
E.9.2
MPI Wrapper Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
E.9.3
I'm not getting enough samples
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
E.9.4
I just see main (external code) and nothing else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
E.9.5
MAP is reporting time spent in a function definition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
E.9.6
MAP is not correctly identifying vectorized instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
E.9.7
MAP harmless error messages in Xeon Phi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
E.9.8
MAP takes an extremely long time to gather and analyze my OpenBLAS-linked
application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
E.10 Obtaining Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
F Queue Template Script Syntax
188
F.1
Queue Template Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
F.2
Defining New Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
F.3
Specifying Default Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
F.4
Launching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
F.4.1
Using AUTO LAUNCH TAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
F.4.2
Using ddt-mpirun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
F.4.3
MPICH 1 based MPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
F.4.4
Scalar Programs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
F.5
Using PROCS PER NODE TAG
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
F.6
Job ID Regular Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
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1
Introduction
Welcome to the Allinea MAP and Allinea DDT user guide. Allinea MAP is our new, low-overhead pro-
filer for both scalar and MPI programs. Allinea DDT is our industry-leading parallel debugger supporting
a wide range of parallel architectures and models, including MPI, UPC, CUDA and OpenMP.
Both these tools share a common environment - one download provides you with everything you need
to run both Allinea DDT and Allinea MAP, although your licence may restrict you to one or the other.
This simplifies your installation and maintenance overheads and provides one common, familiar inter-
face across all our tools, making it easy to move between them while working on a piece of code.
Note to cluster owners: you'll notice that some parts of this document are shared between both Allinea
MAP and Allinea DDT, in particular the installation and configuration sections. Typically, both tools
should be provided from one binary installation with one cluster-wide configuration shared between the
two. This makes it as easy as possible for users of the cluster to switch between the tools without having
to look up settings and reconfigure their queue submission scripts.
1.1
Allinea DDT
Allinea DDT is an intuitive, scalable, graphical debugger capable of debugging a wide variety of scenarios
found in today's development environments. With Allinea DDT, it is possible to debug:
• Single process and multithreaded software
• OpenMP
• Parallel (MPI) software
• Heterogeneous software such as that written to use GPUs
• Hybrid codes mixing paradigms such as MPI + OpenMP, or MPI + CUDA
• Multi-process software of any form, including client-server applications
The tool can do many tasks beyond the normal capabilities of a debugger -- for example the memory
debugging feature is able to detect some errors before they have caused a program crash by verifying
usage of the system allocator functions, and the message queue integration with MPI can show the current
state of communication between processes in the system.
Allinea DDT supports all of the compiled languages that are found in mainstream and high-performance
computing including:
• C, C++, and all derivatives of Fortran, including Fortran 90.
• Parallel languages/models including MPI, UPC, and Fortran 2008 Co-arrays.
• GPU languages such as HMPP, OpenMP Accelerators, CUDA and CUDA Fortran.
Whilst many users choose Allinea DDT for desktop development or for debugging on small departmen-
tal parallel machines, it is also scalable and fast to beyond Petascale and is used to debug hundreds of
thousands of processes simultaneously at some sites.
Chapters 4 to 16 of this manual describe DDT in more detail.
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1.2
Allinea MAP
Allinea MAP is a parallel profiler that aims to be powerful but easy to use, scaleable to hundreds of
thousands of processes while maintaining a low overhead. Allinea MAP features:
• A sampling profiler with adaptive sampling rates to keep the data volumes collected under control.
Samples are aggregated at all levels to preserve key features of a run without drowning in data
• A folding code and stack viewer allows you to drill down to time spent on individual lines and
draw back to see the big picture across nests of routines.
• Just 5% application slowdown even with thousands of MPI proceesss.
• Both interactive and batch modes for gathering profile data.
• A unified job control interface with Allinea DDT -- configure it once and both tools just work, with
a familiar, usable interface.
• Metrics that allow memory usage, floating-point calculations and MPI usage to be seen through a
program run and across processes:
– Flick to the CPU view to see the percentage of vectorized SIMD instructions, including AVX
extensions used in each part of the code
– See how the amount of time spent in memory operations varies over time and processes - are
you making efficient use of the cache?
– Zoom in to any part of the timeline, isolate a single iteration and explore its behaviour in
detail
– Everything shows aggregated data, preferring distributions with outlying ranks labelled to
endless lists of processes and threads, ensuring the display is as visually scalable as our
industry-leading backend.
Chapters 17 to 23 of this manual describe MAP in more detail.
1.3
Purchasing
To purchase a licence and support for either Allinea DDT or Allinea MAP, contact sales@allinea.com or
visit http://www.allinea.com/products/allinea-ddt/purchase or http://www.allinea.com/products/allinea-map/
purchase to purchase online.
There are a number of different licence types, which determine the possible usage scenarios.
• Workstation Scalar -- for single process or multi-threaded code, including unlimited thread counts.
Locked to a single workstation.
• Workstation Parallel -- for single process, multi-threaded, multi-process or parallel code up to 8
distinct processes and unlimited thread counts. Locked to a workstation.
• Cluster -- for all types of software, up to a defined process count and maximum number of con-
current users. The user interface is locked to one machine (but may still be X-forwarded) but the
parallel processes may run on other machines.
• Supercomputing -- a more flexible licence for all types of software, floating up to a defined total
number of concurrent processes in use by multiple users concurrently.
• Extreme -- our most flexible licence, able to support multiple architectures and floating similar to
the Supercomputing licence.
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Additionally, CUDA support is an option which can be added to any DDT licence to allow debugging of
GPU software for NVIDIA CUDA devices. CUDA kernels cannot be profiled in MAP at this time
Evaluation licences contain support for all the features of Allinea DDT or MAP but are limited to 16
processes. Allinea DDT licences include a permanent MAP trial licence that allows profiling data to be
collected for 30 seconds at the full scale of the DDT licence.
1.4
Online Resources
You can find links to tutorials, training material, webinars and white papers in our online knowledge
center:
Knowledge Center http://www.allinea.com/help-and-resources/training
Known issues and the latest version of this user guide may be found on the support web pages:
Support http://www.allinea.com/knowledge-center/get-support
1.5
Obtaining Help
Whilst this document attempts to cover as many parts of the installation, features and use of our tool as
possible, there will be scenarios or configurations that are not covered, or are only briefly mentioned, or
you may on occasion experience a problem using the product. In any event, the support team at Allinea
will be able to help and will look forward to assist in ensuring that you can get the most out of Allinea
DDT and MAP.
You can contact the team by sending an email directly to support@allinea.com .
Please provide as much detail as you can about the scenario in hand, such as:
• Version number of Allinea DDT or MAP and your operating system and the distribution (example:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8). This information is all available by using the -v option to DDT or
MAP on the command line:
bash$ ddt -v
Allinea DDT
Part of the Allinea environment.
(c) Allinea Software 2002-2014
Version: 4.2.1
Build: Ubuntu 12.04 x86_64
Build Date: Feb 29 2014
Licence Serial Number: see About window
Frontend OS: Ubuntu 12.04 x86_64
Nodes' OS: unknown
Last connected ddt-debugger: unknown
• The compiler used and version number
• The MPI library and CUDA toolkit version as appropriate.
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2
Installation
A combined release of Allinea DDT and MAP (the Allinea Tools) may be downloaded from the Allinea
website http://www.allinea.com. Follow the instructions below to install it.
2.1
Linux/Unix Installation
2.1.1
Graphical Install
Untar the package and run the installer executable using the commands below.
tar xf allinea-tools-<unknown>-ARCH.tar
cd allinea-tools-<unknown>-ARCH
./installer
The installer consists of a number of pages where you can choose install options. Use the Next and Back
buttons to move between pages or Cancel to cancel the installation.
The Install Type page lets you choose who you want to install DDT and MAP for. If you are an administra-
tor (root) you may install the tools for All Users in a common directory such as /opt or /usr/local,
otherwise only the Just For Me option is enabled.
Figure 1: Allinea Tools Installer - Installation type
Once you have selected the installation type, you will be asked what directory you would like to install
the tools in. If you are installing on a cluster, make sure you choose a directory that is shared between
the cluster login node / frontend and the cluster nodes. Otherwise you must install or copy it to the same
location on each node.
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Figure 2: Installer - Installation directory
You will be shown the progress of the installation on the Install page.
Figure 3: Install in progress
Icons for DDT and MAP will be added to your desktop environment's Development menu.
It is important to follow the instructions in the README file that is contained in the tar file. In particular,
you will need a valid licence file. You can obtain an evaluation licence by completing the form at http:
//www.allinea.com/products/allinea-ddt/free-trial.
Due to the vast number of different site configurations and MPI distributions that are supported by Allinea
DDT and MAP, it is inevitable that sometimes you may need to take further steps to get the tools fully
integrated into your environment. For example, it may be necessary to ensure that environment variables
are propagated to remote nodes, and ensure that the tool libraries and executables are available on the
remote nodes.
2.1.2
Text-mode Install
The text-mode install script textinstall.sh is useful if you are installing remotely.
tar xf allinea-tools-<unknown>-ARCH.tar
cd allinea-tools-<unknown>-ARCH
./text-install.sh
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Press Return to read the licence when prompted and then enter the directory where you would like to
install the tools. The directory must be accessible on all the nodes in your cluster.
2.2
Mac Installation
The Allinea Tools client for Mac is supplied as an Apple Disk Image (*.dmg) file. This contains a copy
of this user guide, the release notes, and the Allinea Tools Client app bundle (i.e. Allinea Tools Client
4.2.app). This bundle must be drag and dropped into the chosen installation directory.
Figure 4: Mac Allinea Tools Installer -- Installation Folder
2.3
Windows Installation
The Allinea Tools client for Windows is installed using a graphical installer. This is a familiar Win-
dows set-up executable, although care needs to be taken with the choice of a destination folder for the
installation.
Figure 5: Windows Allinea Tools Installer -- Installation Folder
If the user performing the installation has administrative rights, then the default installation folder is
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C:\Program Files\Allinea Tools. If administrative rights have not been granted, then the
default will be C:\Users\<user>\AppData\Local.
2.4
Licence Files
You can have combined or individual licence files for DDT and MAP, stored in {installation-
directory}licences (e.g. /home/user/allinea/tools/licenses/Licence.ddt,Licence.
map).
If this is inconvenient, the user can specify the location of a licence file using an environment variable,
ALLINEA LICENCE DIR. For example:
export ALLINEA_LICENCE_DIR=${HOME}/SomeOtherLicenceDir
The user also has the choice of using ALLINEA LICENSE_DIR as the environment variable (American
spelling). The older DDT LICENCE FILE / DDT LICENSE FILE name for a single DDT licence still
works, but we suggest you change to the new system
The order of precedence when searching for licence files is:
• ${ALLINEA_LICENCE_DIR}/*
• ${ALLINEA_LICENSE_DIR}/*
• ${DDT_LICENCE_FILE}
• ${DDT_LICENSE_FILE}
• {installation-directory}/licences
If you do not have a licence file, the DDT GUI will not start and a warning message will be presented. For
MAP the GUI will still allow you to view old profiles, but you will not be able to collect new ones.
Time-limited evaluation licences are available from the Allinea website: http://www.allinea.com.
2.5
Floating Licences
For users with floating licences, the licensing daemon must be started prior to running DDT or MAP. It
is recommended that this is done as a non-root user -- such as nobody or a special unprivileged user
created for this purpose.
{installation-directory}/bin/licenceserver [path-to-licences-dir]&
This will start the daemon, it will serve all floating licences in path-to-licences-dir. If no path is specified,
the default {installation-directory}/licences is used.
The host name, port and MAC (network) address of the licence server will be agreed with you before
issuing the licence, and you should ensure that the agreed host and port will be accessible by users.
DDT / MAP clients will use a separate client licence file which identifies the host, port, and licence
number.
Log files can be generated for accounting purposes.
For more information on the Licence Server please see section 25 The Licence Server.
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3
Connecting to a Remote System
Often you will need to login to a remote system in order to run a job. For example you may use SSH to
login from your desktop machine mydesktop to the login node mycluster-login and then start a job using
the queue submission command qsub.
Figure 6: Connecting to a Remote System
The Allinea Tools can connect to remote systems using SSH for you so you can run the user interface on
your desktop or laptop machine without the need for X forwarding. Native remote clients are available
for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.
No licence file is required by the remote client.
Note: The Allinea Tools must be installed on the remote system to use DDT or MAP remotely.
Figure 7: Remote Launch -- Configure
To connect to a remote system click on the Remote Launch drop down list and select Configure.... The
Remote Launch Settings window will open where you can enter the necessary settings.
3.1
Remote Launch Settings
Figure 8: Remote Launch Options
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Host Name: The host name of the remote system you wish to connect to.
The syntax of the host name field is:
[username]@hostname[:port]...
username is an optional user name to use on the remote system. If not specified your local user name
will be used instead.
hostname is the host name of the remote system.
port is the optional port number that the remote host's SSH daemon is listening on. If not specified the
default of 22 is used.
To login via one or more intermediate hosts (e.g. a gateway) enter the host names in order, separated by
spaces, e.g. gateway login
Note: You must be able to login to the third and subsequent hosts without a password.
Additional SSH options may be specified in the remote-exec script covered in section 24.4 Connect-
ing to remote programs (remote-exec).
Installation Directory: The full path to the Allinea Tools installation on the remote system.
Script (optional): This script will be run before starting the remote daemon on the remote system. You
may use this script to load the required modules for DDT and MAP, your MPI and compiler. See below
for more details.
Always look for source files locally: Check this box to use the source files on the local system instead
of the remote system.
3.2
Remote Script
The script may load modules using the module command or otherwise set environment variables. The
Allinea Tools will source this script before running its remote daemon (your script does not need to start
the remote daemon itself).
The script will be run using /bin/sh (usually a Bourne-compatible shell). If this is not your usual login
shell, make allowances for the different syntax it might require.
You may install a site-wide script that will be sourced for all users at
/path/to/allinea-tools/remote-init.
Example Script
Note: this script file should be created on the remote system and the full path to the file entered in the
Script (optional) box.
module load allinea-tools\\
module load mympi\\
module load mycompiler
3.3
Using X Forwarding or VNC
In the event you do not want to use the Remote Launch feature here are two other methods for running
Allinea DDT or Allinea MAP on a remote system: X forwarding and VNC (or similar Unix-supporting
remote desktop software).
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X forwarding is effective when the network connection is low latency (e.g. same physical site). VNC is
strongly recommended when the network connection is moderate or slow.
• Apple users accessing a Linux or other Unix machine whilst using a single-button mouse should
be advised that pressing the Command key and the single mouse button will have the same effect
as right clicking on a two button mouse. Right clicking allows access to some important features
in DDT and MAP.
You can use X forwarding to access the Allinea Tools running on a remote Linux/Unix system from
an Apple:
– Start the X11 server (available in the X11User.pkg).
– Set the display variable correctly to allow X applications to display by opening a terminal in
OS/X and typing:
export DISPLAY=:0
– Then ssh to the remote system from that terminal, with ssh options -X and -C (X forwarding
and compression). For example:
ssh -CX username@login.mybigcluster.com
– Now start DDT or MAP on the remote system and the window will appear on your Mac.
• Windows users can use any one of a number of commercial and open source X servers, but may find
VNC a viable alternative (http://www.realvnc.com/) which is available under free and commercial
licensing options.
• VNC allows users to access a desktop running on a remote server (e.g. a cluster login node or front
end) and is more suitable than X forwarding for medium to high latency links. By setting up an
SSH 'tunnel' users are usually able to securely access this remote desktop from anywhere. To use
VNC and the Allinea Tools:
– Log in to the remote system and set up a tunnel for port 5901 and 5801. On Apple or any
Linux/Unix systems use the ssh command. If you are using Putty on Windows use the GUI
to setup the tunnel.
ssh -L 5901:localhost:5901 -L 5801:localhost:5801 \
username@login.mybigcluster.com
– At the remote prompt, start vncserver. If this is the first time you have used VNC it will ask
you to set an access password.
vncserver
The output from vncserver will tell you which ports VNC has started on -- 5800+n and
5900+n, where n is the number given as hostname:n in the output. If this number, n, is not
1, then another user is already using VNC on that system, and you should set a new tunnel
to these ports by logging in to the same host again and changing the settings to the new ports
(or use SSH escape codes to add a tunnel, see the SSH manual pages for details).
– Now, on the local desktop/laptop, either use a browser and access the desktop within the
browser by entering the URL http://localhost:5801/, or (better) you may use a
separate VNC client such as krdc or vncviewer.
krdc localhost:1
or
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vncviewer localhost:1
If n is not 1, as described above, use :2, :3 etc. as appropriate instead.
• Note that a bug in the browser based access method means the Tab key does not work correctly in
VNC. but krdc or vncviewer users are not affected by this problem.
• VNC frequently defaults to an old X window manager (twm) which requires you to manually place
windows; this can be changed by editing the
/.vnc/xstartup file to use KDE or GNOME
and restarting the VNC server.
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4
DDT: Starting
As always, when compiling the program that you wish to debug, you must add the debug flag to your
compile command. For most compilers this is -g. It is also advisable to turn off compiler optimisations
as these can make debugging appear strange and unpredictable. If your program is already compiled
without debug information you will need to make the files that you are interested in again.
To start DDT simply type one of the following into a shell window:
ddt
ddt program_name
ddt program_name arguments
To start DDT in the Mac OS X type:
open '/Applications/Allinea Tools/Allinea DDT.app'
'/Applications/Allinea \
Tools/Allinea DDT.app/Contents/MacOS/Allinea DDT'
[program_name [arguments]]
The quotes are used to cope with spaces in the path naming. The root /Applications directory
is the default place for all applications in OS X. If your installation has been done in a user's home
/Applications directory then use that one.
Note: You should not attempt to pipe input directly to DDT – for information about how to achieve the
effect of sending input to your program, please read section 8 DDT: Program Input And Output.
Once DDT has started it will display the Welcome Page.
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Figure 9: DDT Welcome Page
The Welcome Page allows you to choose what kind of debugging you want to do. You can:
• run a program from DDT and debug it
• debug a program you launch manually (e.g. on the command line)
• attach to an already running program
• open core files generated by a program that crashed
• connect to a remote system
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4.1
Running a Program
Figure 10: Run Window
If you click the Run button on the Welcome Page you will see the window above. The settings are grouped
into sections. Click the Details... button to expand a section. The settings in each section are described
below.
4.1.1
Application
Application: The full path name to your application. If you specified one on the command line, this will
already be filled in. You may browse for an application by clicking on the Browse
button.
Note: Many MPIs have problems working with directory and program names containing spaces. We
recommend avoiding the use of spaces in directory and file names.
Arguments: (optional) The arguments passed to your application. These will be automatically filled if
you entered some on the command line.
Note: Avoid using quote characters such as ' and “, as these may be interpreted differently by DDT and
your command shell. If you must use these and cannot get them to work as expected, please contact
support@allinea.com .
stdin file: (optional) This allows you to choose a file to be used as the standard input (stdin) for your
program. DDT will automatically add arguments to mpirun to ensure your input file is used.
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Working Directory: (optional) The working (i.e. current directory) to use when debugging your appli-
cation. If this is blank then DDT's working directory will be used instead.
4.1.2
MPI
Note: If you only have a single process licence or have selected none as your MPI Implementation the
MPI options will be missing. The MPI options are not available when DDT is in single process mode.
See section 4.3 Debugging Single-Process Programs for more details about using DDT with a single
process.
Number of processes: The number of processes that you wish to debug. DDT supports hundreds of
thousands of processes but this is limited by your licence. This option may not be displayed if disabled
on the Job Submission options page.
Number of nodes: This is the number of compute nodes that you wish to use to run your program. This
option is only displayed for certain MPI implementations or if it is enabled on the Job Submission options
page.
Processes per node: This is the number of MPI processes to run on each compute node. This op-
tion is only displayed for certain MPI implementations or if it is enabled on the Job Submission options
page.
Implementation: The MPI implementation to use. If you are submitting a job to a queue the queue
settings will also be summarised here. You may change the MPI implementation by clicking on the
Change... button.
Note: The choice of MPI implementation is critical to correctly starting DDT. Your system will normally
use one particular MPI implementation. If you are unsure as to which to pick, try generic, consult your
system administrator or Allinea. A list of settings for common implementations is provided in Appendix
B MPI Distribution Notes and Known Issues .
Note: If your desired MPI command is not in your PATH, or you wish to use an MPI run command that is
not your default one, you can configure this using the Options window (See section 24.5.1 System).
mpirun arguments: (optional): The arguments that are passed to mpirun or your equivalent – usually
prior to your executable name in normal mpirunusage. You can place machine file arguments – if
necessary – here. For most users this box can be left empty. You can also specify mpirunarguments
on the command line (using the -mpiargs command line argument) or using an environment variable
(using the DDT_MPIRUN_ARGUMENTS environment variable) if this is more convenient.
Note: You should not enter the -np argument as DDT will do this for you.
4.1.3
OpenMP
Number of OpenMP threads: The number of OpenMP threads to run your application with. The OMP_
NUM_THREADS environment variable is set to this value.
4.1.4
CUDA
If your licence supports it, you may also debug GPU programs by enabling CUDA support. For more
information on debugging CUDA programs, please see section 14 DDT: CUDA GPU Debugging.
Track GPU Allocations: Tracks CUDA memory allocations made using cudaMalloc, etc. See 11.2
CUDA Memory Debugging for more information.
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Detect invalid read/writes: Turns on the CUDA-MEMCHECK error detection tool. See 11.2 CUDA
Memory Debugging for more information.
4.1.5
UPC
The DDT configuration depends on the UPC compiler used.
4.1.5.1
GCC UPC
DDT can debug applications compiled with GCC UPC 4.8 with TLS disabled. See section C.4 GNU.
To run a UPC program in DDT you have to select the MPI implementation ``GCC libupc SMP (no
TLS)''
4.1.5.2
Berkeley UPC
To run a Berkeley UPC program in DDT you have to compile the program using -tv flag and then select
the same MPI implementation used in the Berkeley compiler build configuration.
The Berkeley compiler must be build using the MPI transport.
See section C.2 Berkeley UPC Compiler.
4.1.6
Memory Debugging
Clicking the Details... button will open the Memory Debugging Settings window. See section 11.3 Con-
figuration for full details of the available Memory Debugging settings.
4.1.7
Environment Variables
The optional Environment Variables section should contain additional environment variables that should
be passed to mpirunor its equivalent. These environment variables may also be passed to your pro-
gram, depending on which MPI implementation your system uses. Most users will not need to use this
box.
Note: on some systems it may be necessary to set environment variables for the DDT backend itself. For
example: if /tmp is unusable on the compute nodes you may wish to set TMPDIR to a different direc-
tory. You can specify such environment variables in /path/to/ddt/lib/environment. Enter one
variable per line and separate the variable name and value with =, e.g. TMPDIR=/work/user.
4.1.8
Plugins
The optional Plugins section allows you to enable plugins for various third-party libraries, such as the
Intel Message Checker or Marmot. See section 13 DDT: Using and Writing Plugins for more informa-
tion.
Click Run to start your program – or Submit if working through a queue (See section 24.2 Integration
With Queuing Systems). This will run your program through the debug interface you selected and will
allow your MPI implementation to determine which nodes to start which processes on.
Note: If you have a program compiled with Intel ifort or GNU g77 you may not see your code
and highlight line when DDT starts. This is because those compilers create a pseudo MAIN function,
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above the top level of your code. To fix this you can either open your Source Code window and add a
breakpoint in your code – then run to that breakpoint, or you can use the Step into function to step into
your code.
When your program starts, DDT will attempt to determine the MPI world rank of each process. If this
fails, you will see the following error message:
Figure 11: MPI rank error
This means that the number DDT shows for each process may not be the MPI rank of the process. To
correct this you can tell DDT to use a variable from your program as the rank for each process – see
section 7.17 Assigning MPI Ranks for details.
To end your current debugging session select the End Session menu option from the File menu. This will
close all processes and stop any running code. If any processes remain you may have to clean them up
manually using the kill command (or a command provided with your MPI implementation).
4.2
remote-exec Required By Some MPIs
When using Open MPI, SGI MPT, MPICH 1 Standard or the MPMD variants of MPICH 2, MPICH 3
or Intel MPI, DDT will allow mpirunto start all the processes, then attach to them while they're inside
MPI_Init.
This method is often faster than the generic method, but requires the remote-exec facility in DDT to
be correctly configured if processes are being launched on a remote machine. For more information on
remote-exec, please see section 24.4 Connecting to remote programs (remote-exec).
Important: If DDT is running in the background (e.g. ddt &) then this process may get stuck (some
SSH versions cause this behaviour when asking for a password). If this happens to you, go to the terminal
and use the fg or similar command to make DDT a foreground process, or run DDT again, without using
“&”.
If DDT can't find a password-free way to access the cluster nodes then you will not be able to use the spe-
cialised startup options. Instead, You can use generic, although startup may be slower for large numbers
of processes.
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4.3
Debugging Single-Process Programs
Figure 12: Single-Process Run Window
Users with single-process licences will immediately see the Run Window that is appropriate for single-
process applications.
Users with multi-process licences can uncheck the MPI check box to run a single process program.
Select the application – either by typing the file name in, or selecting using the browser by clicking the
browse
button. Arguments can be typed into the supplied box.
Finally click Run to start your program.
Note: If you have a program compiled with Intel ifort or GNU g77 you may not see your code
and highlight line when DDT starts. This is because those compilers create a pseudo MAIN function,
above the top level of your code. To fix this you can either open your Source Code window and add a
breakpoint in your code – then play to that breakpoint, or you can use the Step Into function to step into
your code.
To end your current debugging session select the End Session menu option from the File menu. This will
close all processes and stop any running code.
4.4
Debugging OpenMP Programs
When running an OpenMP program, set the Number of OpenMP threads value to the number of threads
you require. DDT will run your program with the OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable set to the
appropriate value.
There are several important points to keep in mind while debugging OpenMP programs:
1. Parallel regions created with #pragma omp parallel (C) or !$OMP PARALLEL (For-
tran) will usually not be nested in the Parallel Stack View under the function that contained the
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#pragma. Instead they will appear under a different top-level item. The top-level item is often in
the OpenMP runtime code, and the parallel region appears several levels down in the tree.
2. Some OpenMP libraries only create the threads when the first parallel region is reached. Don't
worry if you can only see one thread at the start of the program.
3. You cannot step into a parallel region. Instead, tick the Step threads together box and use the Run to
here command to synchronise the threads at a point inside the region – these controls are discussed
in more detail in their own sections of this document.
4. You cannot step out of a parallel region. Instead, use Run to here to leave it. Most OpenMP libraries
work best if you keep the Step threads together box ticked until you have left the parallel region.
With the Intel OpenMP library, this means you will see the Stepping Threads window and will have
to click Skip All once.
5. Leave Step threads together off when you are outside a parallel region (as OpenMP worker threads
usually do not follow the same program flow as the main thread).
6. To control threads individually, use the Focus on Thread control. This allows you to step and play
one thread without affecting the rest. This is helpful when you want to work through a locking
situation or to bring a stray thread back to a common point. The Focus controls are discussed in
more detail in their own section of this document.
7. Shared OpenMP variables may appear twice in the Locals window. This is one of the many un-
fortunate side-effects of the complex way OpenMP libraries interfere with your code to produce
parallelism. One copy of the variable may have a nonsense value – this is usually easy to recognise.
The correct values are shown in the Evaluate and Current Line windows.
8. Parallel regions may be displayed as a new function in the stack views. Many OpenMP libraries
implement parallel regions as automatically-generated “outline” functions, and DDT shows you
this. To view the value of variables that are not used in the parallel region, you may need to switch
to thread 0 and change the stack frame to the function you wrote, rather than the outline function.
9. Stepping often behaves unexpectedly inside parallel regions. Reduction variables usually require
some sort of locking between threads, and may even appear to make the current line jump back
to the start of the parallel region! Don't worry about this – step over another couple of times and
you'll see it comes back to where it belongs.
10. Some compilers optimise parallel loops regardless of the options you specified on the command
line. This has many strange effects, including code that appears to move backwards as well as
forwards, and variables that have nonsense values because they have been optimised out by the
compiler.
If you are using DDT with OpenMP and would like to tell us about experiences, we would appreciate
your feedback. Please email support@allinea.com with the subject title OpenMP feedback.
4.5
Manual Launching of Multi-Process Non-MPI programs
DDT can only launch MPI programs and scalar (single process) programs itself. The Manual Launch
(Advanced) button on the Welcome Page allows you to debug multi-process and multi-executable pro-
grams. These programs don't necessarily need to be MPI programs. You can debug programs that use
other parallel frameworks, or both the client and the server from a client/server application in the same
DDT session, for example.
You must run each program you want to debug manually using the ddt-client command, similar to
debugging with a scalar debugger like the GNU debugger (gdb). However, unlike a scalar debugger, you
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can debug more than one process at the same time in the same DDT session (licence permitting). Each
program you run will show up as a new process in the DDT window.
For example to debug both client and server in the same DDT session:
1. Click on the Manual Launch (Advanced) button.
2. Select 2 processes
Figure 13: Manual Launch Window
3. Click the Listen button.
4. At the command line run:
ddt-client server &
ddt-client client &
The server process will appear as process 0 and the client as process 1 in the DDT window.
Figure 14: Manual Launch Process Groups
After you have run the initial programs you may add extra processes to the DDT session (for example
extra clients) using ddt-client in the same way.
ddt-client client2 &
If you check Start debugging after the first process connects you do not need to specify how many pro-
cesses you want to launch in advance. You can start debugging after the first process connects and add
extra processes later as above.
4.6
Debugging MPMD Programs
If you are using Open MPI, MPICH 2, MPICH 3 or Intel MPI, DDT can be used to debug multiple
program, multiple data (MPMD) programs. To start an MPMD program in DDT:
1. MPICH 2 and Intel MPI only: Select the MPMD variant of the MPI Implementation on the System
page of the Options window, e.g. for MPICH 2 select MPICH 2 (MPMD).
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2. Click the Run button on the Welcome Page.
3. Select one of the MPMD programs in the Application box, it doesn't matter what executable you
choose.
4. Enter the total amount of processes for the MPMD job in the Number of processes box.
5. Enter an MPMD style command line in the mpirun Arguments box in the MPI section of the Run
window, e.g.:
-np 4 hello : -np 4 program2
or:
--app /path/to/my_app_file
6. Click the Run button.
Note: be sure that the sum of processes in step 5 is equal to the number of processes set in step 4.
4.6.1
Debugging MPMD Programs in Compatibility mode
If you are using Open MPI in Compatibility mode (e.g. because you don't have SSH access to the compute
nodes) then replace:
-np 2 ./progc.exe : -np 4 ./progf90.exe
in the mpirun Arguments / appfile with this:
-np 2 /path/to/ddt/bin/ddt-client ./progc.exe : -np 4
/path/to/ddt/bin/ddt-client ./progf90.exe
4.7
Opening Core Files
Figure 15: The Open Core Files Window
DDT allows you to open one or more core files generated by your application.
To debug using core files, click the Open Core Files button on the Welcome Page. This opens the Open
Core Files window, which allows you to select an executable and a set of core files. Click OK to open
the core files and start debugging them.
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While DDT is in this mode, you cannot play, pause or step (because there is no process active). You
are, however, able to evaluate expressions and browse the variables and stack frames saved in the core
files.
The End Session menu option will return DDT to its normal mode of operation.
4.8
Attaching To Running Programs
DDT can attach to running processes on any machine you have access to, whether they are from MPI
or scalar jobs, even if they have different executables and source pathnames. Clicking the Attach to a
Running Program button on the Welcome Page will show DDT's Attach Window:
Figure 16: Attach Window
There are two ways to select the processes you want to attach to: you can either choose from a list of
automatically detected MPI jobs (for supported MPI implementations) or manually select from a list of
processes.
4.8.1
Automatically Detected MPI Jobs
DDT can automatically detect MPI jobs started on the local host for selected MPI implementations (and
other hosts you have access to if an Attach Hosts File is configured – see section 24.5.1 System for more
details).
The list of detected MPI jobs is shown on the Automatically-detected MPI jobs tab of the Attach Window.
Click the header for a particular job to see more information about that job. Once you have found the job
you want to attach to simply click the Attach button to attach to it.
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4.8.2
Attaching To A Subset Of An MPI Job
You may want to attach only to a subset of ranks from your MPI job. You can choose this subset using the
Attach to ranks box on the Automatically-detected MPI jobs tab of the Attach Window. You may change
the subset later by selecting the File Change Attached Processes... menu item.
4.8.3
Manual Process Selection
You can manually select which processes to attach to from a list of processes using the List of all processes
tab of the Attach Window. If you want to attach to a process on a remote host see section 24.4 Connecting
to remote programs (remote-exec) first.
Initially the list of processes will be blank while DDT scans the nodes, provided in your node list file, for
running processes. When all the nodes have been scanned (or have timed out) the window will appear
as shown above. Use the Filter box to find the processes you want to attach to. On non-Linux platforms
you will also need to select the application executable you want to attach to. Ensure that the list shows all
the processes you wish to debug in your job, and no extra/unnecessary processes. You may modify the
list by selecting and removing unwanted processes, or alternatively selecting the processes you wish to
attach to and clicking on Attach to Selected Processes. If no processes are selected, DDT uses the whole
visible list.
On Linux you may use DDT to attach to multiple processes running different executables. When you
select processes with different executables the application box will change to read Multiple applications
selected. DDT will create a process group for each distinct executable
With some supported MPI implementations (e.g. Open MPI) DDT will show MPI processes as chil-
dren of the mpirun(or equivalent) command (see figure below). Clicking the mpiruncommand will
automatically select all the MPI child processes.
Figure 17: Attaching with Open MPI
Some MPI implementations (such as MPICH 1) create forked (child) processes that are used for com-
munication, but are not part of your job. To avoid displaying and attaching to these, make sure the Hide
Forked Children box is ticked. DDT's definition of a forked child is a child process that shares the parent's
name. Some MPI implementations create your processes as children of each other. If you cannot see all
the processes in your job, try clearing this checkbox and selecting specific processes from the list.
Once you click on the Attach to Selected/Listed Processes button, DDT will use remote-exec to attach
a debugger to each process you selected and will proceed to debug your application as if you had started it
with DDT. When you end the debug session, DDT will detach from the processes rather than terminating
them – this will allow you to attach again later if you wish.
DDT will examine the processes it attaches to and will try to discover the MPI_COMM_WORLD rank of
each process. If you have attached to two MPI programs, or a non-MPI program, then you may see the
following message:
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Figure 18: MPI rank error
If there is no rank (for example, if you've attached to a non-MPI program) then you can ignore this
message and use DDT as normal. If there is, then you can easily tell DDT what the correct rank for each
process via the Use as MPI Rank button in the Cross-Process Comparison Window – see section 7.17
Assigning MPI Ranks for details.
Note that the stdin, stderr and stdout (standard input, error and output) are not captured by DDT
if used in attaching mode. Any input/output will continue to work as it did before DDT attached to the
program (e.g. from the terminal or perhaps from a file).
4.8.4
Configuring Attaching to Remote Hosts
To attach to remote hosts in DDT, click the Choose Hosts button in the attach dialog. This will display
the list of hosts to be used for attaching.
Figure 19: Choose Hosts Window
From here you can add and remove hosts, as well as unchecking hosts that you wish to temporarily
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exclude.
You can also import a list of hosts from a file by clicking the Import button.
The hosts list is initially populated from the attach Hosts File, which can be configured from the Options
window: File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) .
Each remote host is then scanned for processes, and the result displayed in the attach window. If you
have trouble connected to remote hosts, please see section 24.4 Connecting to remote programs (remote-
exec).
4.8.5
Using DDT Command-Line Arguments
As an alternative to starting DDT and using the Welcome Page, DDT can instead be instructed to attach
to running processes from the command-line.
To do so, you will need to specify the pathname to the application executable as well as a list of hostnames
and process identifiers (PIDs).
The list of hostnames and PIDs can be given on the command-line using the -attach option:
mark@holly:˜$ ddt -attach /home/mark/ddt/examples/hello \
localhost:11057 \
localhost:11094 \
localhost:11352 \
localhost:11362 \
localhost:12357
Another command-line possibility is to specify the list of hostnames and PIDs in a file and use the -
attach-file option:
mark@holly:˜$ cat /home/mark/ddt/examples/hello.list
localhost:11057
localhost:11094
localhost:11352
localhost:11362
localhost:12357
mark@holly:˜$ ddt -attach-file \
/home/mark/ddt/examples/hello.list \
/home/mark/ddt/examples/hello
In both cases, if just a number is specified for a hostname:PID pair, then localhost: is assumed.
These command-line options work for both single- and multi-process attaching.
4.9
Starting A Job In A Queue
If DDT has been configured to be integrated with a queue/batch environment, as described in section
24.2 Integration With Queuing Systems then you may use DDT to launch your job. In this case, a Submit
button is presented on the Run Window, instead of the ordinary Run button. Clicking Submit from the
Run Window will display the queue status until your job starts. DDT will execute the display command
every second and show you the standard output. If your queue display is graphical or interactive then you
cannot use it here.
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If your job does not start or you decide not to run it, click on Cancel Job. If the regular expression you
entered for getting the job id is invalid or if an error is reported then DDT will not be able to remove your
job from the queue – it is strongly recommend you check the job has been removed before submitting
another as it is possible for a forgotten job to execute on the cluster and either waste resources or interfere
with other debug sessions.
Once your job is running, it will connect to DDT and you will be able to debug it.
4.10
Using Custom MPI Scripts
On some systems a custom 'mpirun' replacement is used to start jobs, such as mpiexec. DDT will
normally use whatever the default for your MPI implementation is, so for MPICH 1 it would look for
mpirunand not mpiexec. This section explains how to configure DDT to use a custom mpiruncommand
for job start up.
There are typically two ways you might want to start jobs using a custom script, and DDT supports them
both. Firstly, you might pass all the arguments on the command-line, like this:
mpiexec -n 4 /home/mark/program/chains.exe /tmp/mydata
There are several key variables in this line that DDT can fill in for you:
1. The number of processes (4 in the above example)
2. The name of your program (/home/mark/program/chains.exe)
3. One or more arguments passed to your program (/tmp/mydata)
Everything else, like the name of the command and the format of it's own arguments remains constant.
To use a command like this in DDT, we adapt the queue submission system described in the previous
section. For this mpiexecexample, the settings would be as shown here:
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Figure 20: DDT Using Custom MPI Scripts
As you can see, most of the settings are left blank. Let's look at the differences between the Submit
Command in DDT and what you would type at the command-line:
1. The number of processes is replaced with NUM_PROCS_TAG
2. The name of the program is replaced by the full path to ddt-debugger
3. The program arguments are replaced by PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
Note, it is NOT necessary to specify the program name here. DDT takes care of that during its own
startup process. The important thing is to make sure your MPI implementation starts ddt-debugger
instead of your program, but with the same options.
The second way you might start a job using a custom mpirunreplacement is with a settings file:
mpiexec -config /home/mark/myapp.nodespec
where myfile.nodespec might contains something like this:
comp00 comp01 comp02 comp03 : /home/mark/program/chains.exe /tmp/
mydata
DDT can automatically generate simple configuration files like this every time you run your program –
you just need to specify a template file. For the above example, the template file myfile.ddt would
contain the following:
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comp00 comp01 comp02 comp03 : DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-debugger
DDT_DEBUGGER_ARGUMENTS_TAG PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
This follows the same replacement rules described above and in detail in section 24.2 Integration With
Queuing Systems. The options settings for this example might be:
Figure 21: DDT Using Substitute MPI Commands
Note the Submit Command and the Submission Template File in particular. DDT will create a new file
and append it to the submit command before executing it. So, in this case what would actually be ex-
ecuted might be mpiexec-config /tmp/ddt-temp-0112 or similar. Therefore, any argument
like -config must be last on the line, because DDT will add a file name to the end of the line. Other
arguments, if there are any, can come first.
We recommend reading the section on queue submission, as there are many features described there that
might be useful to you if your system uses a non-standard start up command. If you do use a non-standard
command, please email us at support@allinea.com and let us know about it – you might find the next
version supports it out-of-the-box!
4.11
Starting DDT From A Job Script
The usual way of debugging a program with DDT in a queue/batch environment is to configure DDT to
submit the program to the queue for you (See section 17.6 Starting A Job In A Queue above).
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Some users may wish to start DDT itself from a job script that is submitted to the queue/batch environ-
ment. To do this:
1. Configure DDT with the correct MPI implementation.
2. Disable queue submission in the DDT options.
3. Create a job script that starts DDT using the command:
ddt -start -noqueue -once -n NPROCS -- PROGRAM [ARGUMENTS]...
where NPROCS is the number of processes to start PROGRAM is the program to run and ARGUMENTS
are the arguments to the program.
4. Submit the job script to the queue. The -once argument tells DDT to exit when the session ends.
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5
DDT: Overview
DDT uses a tabbed-document interface – a method of presenting multiple documents that is familiar from
many present day applications. This allows you to have many source files open, and to view one (or two,
if the Source Code Viewer is 'split') in the full workspace area.
Each component of DDT (labelled and described in the key) is a dockable window, which may be dragged
around by a handle (usually on the top or left-hand edge). Components can also be double-clicked, or
dragged outside of DDT, to form a new window. You can hide or show most of the components using the
View menu. The screen shot shows the default DDT layout.
Figure 22: DDT Main Window
Key
(1) Menu Bar
(2) Process Controls
(3) Process Groups
(4) Find File or Function
(5) Project Files
(6) Source Code
(7) Variables and Stack of Current Process/Thread
(8) Parallel Stack, IO and Breakpoints
(9) Evaluate Window
(10) Status Bar
Please note that on some platforms, the default screen size can be insufficient to display the status bar –
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if this occurs, you should expand the DDT window until DDT is completely visible.
5.1
Saving And Loading Sessions
Most of the user-modified parameters and windows are saved by right-clicking and selecting a save option
in the corresponding window.
However, DDT also has the ability to load and save all these options concurrently to minimize the incon-
venience in restarting sessions. Saving the session stores such things as Process Groups, the contents of
the Evaluate window and more. This ability makes it easy to debug code with the same parameters set
time and time again.
To save a session simply use the Save Session option from the File menu. Enter a file name (or select
an existing file) for the save file and click OK. To load a session again simply choose the Load Session
option from the File menu, choose the correct file and click OK.
5.2
Source Code
When DDT begins a session, source code is automatically found from the information compiled in the
executable.
Source and header files found in the executable are reconciled with the files present on the front-end
server, and displayed in a simple tree view within the Project Files tab of the Project Navigator window.
Source files can be loaded for viewing by clicking on the file name.
Whenever a selected process is stopped, the Source Code Viewer will automatically leap to the correct
file and line, if the source is available.
The source code viewer supports automatic colour syntax highlighting for C and Fortran.
You can hide functions or subroutines you are not interested in by clicking the - glyph next to the first
line of the function. This will collapse the function. Simply click the + glyph to expand the function
again.
5.3
Project Files
The Project Files tree shows a list of source files for your program. Click on a file in the tree to open it
in the Code Viewer. You may also expand a source file to see a list of functions / procedures defined in
that source file (C / C++ / Fortran only).
5.3.1
Application / External Code
DDT automatically splits your source code into Application Code (source code from your application
itself) and External Code (code from third party libraries). This allows you to quickly distinguish between
your own code and, for example, third party libraries.
You can control exactly which directories are considered to contain Application Code using the Applica-
tion / External Directories window. Right-click on the Project Files tree to open the window.
The checked directories are the directories containing Application Code. Once you have configured them
to your satisfaction click Ok to update the Project Files tree.
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5.4
Finding Lost Source Files
On some platforms, not all source files are found automatically. This can also occur, for example, if the
executable or source files have been moved since compilation. Extra directories to search for source files
can be added by right-clicking whilst in the Project Files tab, and selecting Add/view Source Directory(s).
You can also specify extra source directories on the command line using the -source-dirs command
line argument (separate each directory with a colon).
It is also possible to add an individual file – if, for example, this file has moved since compilation or is
on a different (but visible) file system – by right-clicking in the Project Files tab and selecting the Add
File option.
Any directories or files you have added are saved and restored when you use the Save Session and Load
Session commands inside the File menu. If DDT doesn't find the sources for your project, you might find
these commands save you a lot of unnecessary clicking.
5.5
Finding Code Or Variables
5.5.1
Find File or Function
The Find File Or Function Box appears above the source file tree. You can type the name of a file or
function in this box to search for that file/function in the source file tree. You can also type just part of
a name to see all the files/functions whose name contains the text you typed. Double-click on a result to
jump to the corresponding line for that file/function.
Figure 23: Find Files or Function box
5.5.2
Find
The Find menu item can be found in the Search menu, and can be used to find occurrences of an expression
in the currently visible source file.
DDT will search from the current cursor position for the next or previous occurrence of the search term.
Click on the magnifying glass icon for more search options.
Case Sensitive: When checked, DDT will perform a case sensitive search (e.g. Hello will not match
hello).
Whole Words Only: When checked, DDT will only match your search term against whole 'words' in
the source file. For example Hello would not match HelloWorld while searching for whole words
only.
Use Regular Expressions: When this is checked, your search may use Perl style regular expressions.
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5.5.3
Find in Files
The Find In Files window can be found in the Search menu, and can be used to search all source and
header files associated with your program. The search results are listed and can be clicked to display the
file and line number in the main Source Code Viewer; this can be of particular use for setting a breakpoint
at a function.
Figure 24: Find in Files dialog
Case sensitive: When checked, DDT will perform a case sensitive search (e.g. Hello will not match
hello).
Whole words only: When checked, DDT will only match your search term against whole 'words' in
the source file. For example Hello would not match HelloWorld while searching for whole words
only.
Regular Expression: When checked, DDT will interpret the search term as a regular expression rather
than a fixed string. The syntax of the regular expression is identical to that described in the appendix F.6
Job ID Regular Expression.
5.6
Jump To Line / Jump To Function
DDT has a jump to line function which enables the user to go directly to a line of code. This is found in
the Search menu. A window will appear in the centre of your screen. Enter the line number you wish to
see and click OK. This will take you to the correct line providing that you entered a line that exists. You
can use the hotkey CTRL-G to access this function quickly.
DDT also allows you to jump directly to the implementation of a function. In the Project Files tab of
the Project Navigator window on the left side of the main screen you should see small + symbols next to
each file:
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Figure 25: Function Listing
Clicking on a the + will display a list of the functions in that file. Clicking on any function will display
it in the Source Code viewer.
5.7
Static Analysis
Static analysis is a powerful companion to debugging. Whilst Allinea DDT enables the user to discover
errors by code and state inspection along with automatic error detection components such as memory
debugging, static analysis inspects the source code and attempts to identify errors that can be detected
from the source alone – independently of the compiler and actual process state.
Allinea DDT includes the static analysis tools cppcheck and ftnchek. These will by default auto-
matically examines source files as they are loaded and display a warning symbol if errors are detected.
Typical errors include:
• Buffer overflows – accessing beyond the bounds of heap or stack arrays
• Memory leaks – allocating memory within a function and there being a path through the function
which does not deallocate the memory and the pointer is not assigned to any externally visible
variable, nor returned.
• Unused variables, and also use of variables without initialization in some cases.
Figure 26: Static Analysis Error Annotation
Static analysis is not guaranteed to detect all, or any, errors, and an absence of warning triangles should
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not be considered to be an absence of bugs.
5.8
Editing Source Code
You can the right click in the Source Code Viewer and select the Open file in editor option to open the
current file in the default editor for your desktop environment. If you want to change the editor used, or
the file doesn't open with the default settings, open the Options window by selecting File Options
(DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) and enter the path of your preferred editor in the Editor box, e.g.
/usr/bin/gedit.
Note: Editing source code is not possible when using the remote client.
5.9
Version Control Information
The version control integration in DDT and MAP allows users to see line-by-line information from Git,
Mercurial or Subversion next to source files. Information is colour-coordinated to indicate the age of the
source line.
Figure 27: DDT running with Version Control Information enabled
To enable select the Version Control Information option from the View menu. When enabled columns
to left of source code viewers are shown. In these columns are displayed how long ago the line was
added/modified. Each line in the information column is highlighted in a colour to indicate its age. The
lines changed in the current revision are highlighted in red. Where available lines with changes not
committed are highlighted in purple. All other lines are highlighted with a blend of transparent blue
and opaque green where blue indicates old and green young. Currently uncommitted changes are only
supported for Git. DDT/MAP will not show ANY version control information for files with uncommitted
changes when using Mercurial or Subversion.
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Figure 28: Version Control Information - Tooltips
A folded block of code displays the annotation for the most recently modified line in the block.
Hovering the cursor over the information column reveals a tool-tip containing a preview of the commit
message for the commit that last changed the line.
Figure 29: Version Control Information - Context Menu
To copy the commit message right-click the column on the desired row and from the menu select Copy
Commit Message.
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6
DDT: Controlling Program Execution
Whether debugging a multi-process or a single process code, the mechanisms for controlling program
execution are very similar.
In multi-process mode, most of the features described in this section are applied using Process Groups,
which we describe now. For single process mode, the commands and behaviours are identical, but apply
to only a single process – freeing the user from concerns about process groups.
6.1
Process Control And Process Groups
MPI programs are designed to run as more than one process and can span many machines. DDT allows
you to group these processes so that actions can be performed on more than one process at a time. The
status of processes can be seen at a glance by looking at the Process Group Viewer.
The Process Group Viewer is (by default) at the top of the screen with multi-coloured rows. Each row
relates to a group of processes and operations can be performed on the currently highlighted group (e.g.
playing, pausing and stepping) by clicking on the toolbar buttons. Switch between groups by clicking
on them or their processes - the highlighted group is indicated by a lighter shade. Groups can be cre-
ated, deleted, or modified by the user at any time, with the exception of the All group, which cannot be
modified.
Groups are added by clicking on the Create Group button or from a context-sensitive menu that appears
when you right-click on the process group widget. This menu can also be used to rename groups, delete
individual processes from a group and jump to the current position of a process in the code viewer. You
can load and save the current groups to a file, and you can create sub-groups from the processes currently
playing, paused or finished. You can even create a sub-group excluding the members of another group
– for example, to take the complement of the Workers group, select the All group and choose Copy, but
without Workers.
You can also use the context menu to switch between the two different ways of viewing the list of groups
in DDT – the detailed view and the summary view:
6.1.1
Detailed View
The detailed view is ideal for working with smaller numbers of processes. If your program has less than
32 processes, DDT will default to the detailed view. You can switch to this view using the context menu
if you wish.
Figure 30: The Detailed Process Group View
In the detailed view, each process is represented by a square containing its MPI rank (0 through n-1).
The squares are colour-coded; red for a paused process, green for a playing process and grey for a fin-
ished/dead process. Selected processes are highlighted with a lighter shade of their colour and the current
process also has a dashed border.
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When a single process is selected the local variables are displayed in the Variable Viewer and displayed
expressions are evaluated. You can make the Source Code Viewer jump to the file and line for the current
stack frame (if available) by double-clicking on a process.
To copy processes from one group to another, simply click and drag the processes. To delete a process,
press the delete key. When modifying groups it is useful to select more than one process by holding down
one or more of the following:
Key
Description
Control
Click to add/remove process from selection
Shift
Click to select a range of processes
Alt
Click to select an area of processes
Note: Some window managers (such as KDE) use Alt and drag to move a window - you must disable this
feature in your window manager if you wish to use the DDT's area select.
6.1.2
Summary View
The summary view is ideal for working with moderate to huge numbers of processes. If your program
has 32 processes or more, DDT will default to this view. You can switch to this view using the context
menu if you wish.
Figure 31: The Summary Process Group View
In the summary view, individual processes are not shown. Instead, for each group, DDT shows:
• The number of processes in the group.
• The processes belonging that group – here 1-2048 means processes 1 through 2048 inclusive, and 1-
10, 12-1024 means processes 1-10 and processes 12-1024 (but not process 11). If this list becomes
too long, it will be truncated with a '...'. Hovering the mouse over the list will show more details.
• The number of processes in each state (playing, paused or finished). Hovering the mouse over each
state will show a list of the processes currently in that state.
• The rank of the currently selected process. You can change the current process by clicking here,
typing a new rank and pressing Enter. Only ranks belonging to the current group will be accepted.
The Show processes toggle button allows you to switch a single group into the detailed view and back
again – handy if you're debugging a 2048 process program but have narrowed the problem down to just
12 processes, which you've put in a group.
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6.2
Focus Control
Figure 32: Focus options
The focus control allows you to focus on individual processes or threads as well as process groups. When
focused on a particular process or thread, actions such as stepping, playing/pausing, adding breakpoints
etc. will only apply to that process/thread rather than the entire group. In addition, the DDT GUI will
change depending on whether you're focused on group, process or thread. This allows DDT to display
more relevant information about your currently focused object.
6.2.1
Overview of changing focus
Focusing in DDT affects a number of different controls in the DDT main window. These are briefly
described below:
Note: Focus controls do not affect DDT windows such as the Multi Dimensional Array Viewer, Memory
Debugger, Cross Process Comparison etc.
6.2.2
Process Group Viewer
The changes to the process group viewer amongst the most obvious changes to the DDT GUI. When
focus on current group is selected you will see your currently created process groups. When switching
to focus on current process or thread you will see the view change to show the processes in the currently
selected group, with their corresponding threads.
Figure 33: The Detailed Process Group View Focused on a Process
If there are 32 threads or more, DDT will default to showing the threads using a summary view (as in the
Process Group View). The view mode can also be changed using the context menu.
During focus on process, a tooltip will be shown that identifies the OpenMP thread ID of each thread, if
the value exists.
6.2.3
Breakpoints
The breakpoints tab in DDT will be filtered to only display breakpoints relevant to your current group,
process, thread. When focused on a process, The breakpoint tab will display which thread the break-
point belongs to. If you are focused on a group, the tab will display both the process and the thread the
breakpoint belongs to.
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6.2.4
Code Viewer
The code viewer in DDT shows a stack back trace of where each thread is in the call stack. This will also
be filtered by the currently focused item, for example when focused on a particular process, you will only
see the back trace for the threads in that process.
Also, when adding breakpoints using the code viewer, they will be added for the group, process or thread
that is currently focused.
6.2.5
Parallel Stack View
The parallel stack view can also be filtered by focusing on a particular process group, process or thread.
6.2.6
Playing and Stepping
The behaviour of playing, stepping and the Run to here feature are also affected by your currently focused
item. When focused on a process group, the entire group will be affected, whereas focusing on a thread
will mean that only current thread will be executed. The same goes for processes, but with an additional
option which is explained below.
6.2.7
Step Threads Together
The step threads together feature in DDT is only available when focused on process. If this option is
enabled then DDT will attempt to synchronise the threads in the current process when performing actions
such as stepping, pausing and using Run to here.
For example, if you have a process with 2 threads and you choose Run to here, DDT will pause your
program when either of the threads reaches the specified line. If Step threads together is selected DDT
will attempt to play both of the threads to the specified line before pausing the program.
Important note: You should always use Step threads together and Run to here to enter or move within
OpenMP parallel regions. With many compilers it is also advisable to use Step threads together when
leaving a parallel region, otherwise threads can get 'left behind' inside system-specific locking libraries
and may not enter the next parallel region on the first attempt.
6.2.8
Stepping Threads Window
When using the step threads together feature it is not always possible for all threads to synchronise at
their target. There are two main reasons for this:
1. One or more threads may branch into a different section of code (and hence never reach the target).
This is especially common in OpenMP codes, where worker threads are created and remain in
holding functions during sequential regions.
2. As most of DDT's supported debug interfaces cannot play arbitrary groups of threads together,
DDT simulates this behaviour by playing each thread in turn. This is usually not a problem, but
can be if, for example, thread 1 is playing, but waiting for thread 2 (which is not currently playing).
DDT will attempt to resolve this automatically but cannot always do so.
If either of these conditions occur, the Stepping Threads Window will appear, displaying the threads
which have not yet reached their target.
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Figure 34: The Stepping Threads Window
The stepping threads window also displays the status of threads, which may be one of the following:
Done: The thread has reached it target (and has been paused).
Skipped: The thread has been skipped (and paused). DDT will no longer wait for it to reach it's
target.
Playing: This is the thread that is currently being executed. Only one thread may be playing at a
time while the Stepping Threads Window is open.
Waiting: The thread is currently awaiting execution. When the currently playing thread is done
or has been skipped, the highest waiting thread in the list will be executed.
The stepping threads window also lets you interact with the threads with the following options:
Skip: DDT will skip and pause the currently playing thread. If this is the last waiting thread the
window will be closed.
Try Later: The currently playing thread will be paused, and added to the bottom of the list of
threads to be retried later. This is useful if you have threads which are waiting on each other.
Skip All: This will skip (and pause) all of the threads and close the window.
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6.3
Hotkeys
DDT comes with a pre-defined set of hotkeys to enable easy control of your debugging. All the features
you see on the toolbar and several of the more popular functions from the menus have hotkeys assigned
to them. Using the hotkeys will speed up day to day use of DDT and it is a good idea to try to memorize
these.
Key
Function
F9
Play
F10
Pause
F5
Step into
F8
Step over
F6
Step out
CTRL-D
Down stack frame
CTRL-U
Up stack frame
CTRL-B
Bottom stack frame
CTRL-A
Align stack frames with current
CTRL-G
Go to line number
CTRL-F
Find
6.4
Starting, Stopping and Restarting a Program
The File menu can be accessed at almost any time while DDT is running. If a program is running you can
end it and run it again or run another program. When DDT's start up process is complete your program
should automatically stop either at the main function for non-MPI codes, or at the MPI_Init function
for MPI.
When a job has run to the end DDT will show a window box asking if you wish to restart the job. If you
select yes then DDT will kill any remaining processes and clear up the temporary files and then restart
the session from scratch with the same program settings.
When ending a job, DDT will attempt to ensure that all the processes are shut down and clear up any
temporary files. If this fails for any reason you may have to manually kill your processes using kill, or
a method provided by your MPI implementation such as lamclean for LAM/MPI.
6.5
Stepping Through A Program
To continue the program playing click Play/Continue
and to stop it at any time click Pause
.For
multi-process DDT these start/stop all the processes in the current group (see Process Control and Process
Groups).
Like many other debuggers there are three different types of step available. The first is Step Into that will
move to the next line of source code unless there is a function call in which case it will step to the first
line of that function. The second is Step Over that moves to the next line of source code in the bottom
stack frame. Finally, Step Out will execute the rest of the function and then stop on the next line in the
stack frame above. The return value of the function is displayed in the Locals view. When using Step
Out be careful not to try and step out of the main function, as doing this will end your program.
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6.6
Stop Messages
In certain circumstances your program may be automatically paused by the debugger. There are five
reasons your program may be paused in this way:
1. It hit one of DDT's default breakpoints (e.g. exit or abort). See section 6.11 Default Break-
points for more information on default breakpoints.
2. It hit a user-defined breakpoint (a breakpoint shown in the Breakpoints view).
3. The value of a watched variable changed.
4. It was sent a signal. See section 6.21 Signal Handling for more information on signals.
5. It encountered a Memory Debugging error. See section 11.4 Pointer Error Detection and Validity
Checking for more information on Memory Debugging errors.
DDT will display a message telling you exactly why the program was paused. The text may be copied
to the clipboard by selecting it with the mouse, then right-clicking and selecting Copy. You may want to
suppress these messages in certain circumstances, for example if you are playing from one breakpoint to
another. Use the Control Messages menu to enable/disable stop messages.
6.7
Setting Breakpoints
6.7.1
Using the Source Code Viewer
First locate the position in your code that you want to place a breakpoint at. If you have a lot of source
code and wish to search for a particular function you can use the Find/Find In Files window. Clicking the
right mouse button in the Source Code Viewer displays a menu showing several options, including one to
add or remove a breakpoint. In multi-process mode this will set the breakpoint for every member of the
current group. Breakpoints may also be added by left clicking margin to the left of the line number.
Every breakpoint is listed under the breakpoints tab towards the bottom of DDT's window.
If you add a breakpoint at a location where there is no executable code, DDT will highlight the line
you selected as having a breakpoint. However when hitting the breakpoint, DDT will stop at the next
executable line of code.
6.7.2
Using the Add Breakpoint Window
You can also add a breakpoint by clicking the Add Breakpoint
icon in the toolbar. This will open the
Add Breakpoint window.
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Figure 35: The Add Breakpoint window
You may wish to add a breakpoint in a function for which you do not have any source code: for example
in malloc, exit, or printf from the standard system libraries. Select the Function radio button and
enter the name of the function in the box next to it.
You can specify what group/process/thread you want the breakpoint to apply in the Applies To section.
You may also make the breakpoint conditional by checking the Condition check box and entering a
condition in the box.
6.7.3
Pending Breakpoints
Note: This feature is not supported on all platforms.
If you try to add a breakpoint on a function that is not defined, DDT will ask if you want to add it anyway.
If you click Yes the breakpoint will be applied to any shared objects that are loaded in the future.
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6.7.4
Conditional Breakpoints
Figure 36: The Breakpoints Table
Select the breakpoints tab to view all the breakpoints in your program. You may add a condition to any
of them by clicking on the condition cell in the breakpoint table and entering an expression that evaluates
to true or false. Each time a process (in the group the breakpoint is set for) passes this breakpoint it will
evaluate the condition and break only if it returns true (typically any non-zero value). You can drag an
expression from the Evaluate window into the condition cell for the breakpoint and this will be set as the
condition automatically.
Figure 37: Conditional Breakpoints In Fortran
The expression should be in the same language as your program. Also, please note the condition evaluator
is quite pedantic with Fortran conditions, and to ensure the correct interpretation of compound boolean
operations, it is advisable to bracket your expressions amply.
6.8
Suspending Breakpoints
A breakpoint can be temporarily deactivated and reactivated by checking/unchecking the activated col-
umn in the breakpoints panel.
6.9
Deleting A Breakpoint
Breakpoints may be deleted by right-clicking on the breakpoint in the breakpoints panel, or by right-
clicking at the file/line of the breakpoint whilst in the correct process group and right-clicking and select-
ing delete breakpoint. They may also be deleted by left clicking the breakpoint icon in the margin to the
left of the line number in the code viewer.
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6.10
Loading And Saving Breakpoints
To load or save the breakpoints in a session right-click in the breakpoint panel and select the load/save
option. Breakpoints will also be loaded and saved as part of the load/save session.
6.11
Default Breakpoints
DDT has a number of default breakpoints that will stop your program under certain conditions which
are described below. You may enable/disable these while your program is running using the Control
Default Breakpoints menu.
Stop at exit/ exit
When enabled, DDT will pause your program as it is about to end under normal exit conditions.
DDT will pause both before and after any exit handlers have been executed. (Disabled by default.)
Stop at abort/fatal MPI Error
When enabled, DDT will pause your program as it about to end after an error has been triggered.
This includes MPI and non-MPI errors. (Enabled by default.)
Stop on throw (C++ exceptions)
When enabled, DDT will pause your program whenever an exception is thrown (regardless of
whether or not it will be caught). Due to the nature of C++ exception handling, you may not be
able to step your program properly at this point. Instead, you should play your program or use the
Run to here feature in DDT. (Disabled by default.)
Stop on catch (C++ exceptions)
As above, but triggered when your program catches a thrown exception. Again, you may have
trouble stepping your program. (Disabled by default.)
Stop at fork
DDT will stop whenever your program forks (i.e. calls the fork system call to create a copy of the
current process). The new process is added to your existing DDT session and can be debugged
along with the original process.
Stop at exec
When your program calls the exec system call, DDT will stop at the main function (or program
body for Fortran) of the new executable.
Stop on CUDA kernel launch
When debugging CUDA GPU code, this will pause your program at the entry point of each kernel
launch.
Stop on Xeon Phi offload
Stops your program when an offload process is started and attaches to the offload process. You can
then set breakpoints in offloaded code.
6.12
Synchronizing Processes
If the processes in a process group are stopped at different points in the code and you wish to re-synchronize
them to a particular line of code this can be done by right-clicking on the line at which you wish to syn-
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chronize them to and selecting Run To Here. This effectively plays all the processes in the selected group
and puts a break point at the line at which you choose to synchronize the processes at, ignoring any
breakpoints that the processes may encounter before they have synchronized at the specified line.
If you choose to synchronize your code at a point where all processes do not reach then the processes that
cannot get to this point will play to the end.
Note: Though this ignores breakpoints while synchronizing the groups it will not actually remove the
breakpoints.
Note: If a process is already at the line which you choose to synchronize at, the process will still be set to
play. Be sure that your process will revisit the line, or alternatively synchronize to the line immediately
after the current line.
6.13
Setting A Watchpoint
Figure 38: The Watchpoints Table
You can set a watchpoint on a variable or expression that causes DDT to stop every time it changes.
Figure 39: Program Stopped At Watchpoint being watched
Unlike breakpoints, watchpoints are not displayed in the Source Code Viewer. Instead they are created
by right-clicking on the Watchpoints view and selecting the Add Watchpoint menu item, or dragging a
variable to the Watchpoints view from the Local Variables, Current Line or Evaluate views.
Upon adding a watchpoint the Add Watchpoint dialog appears allowing you to apply restrictions to the
watchpoint. Process Group restricts the watch point to the chosen process group (see 6.1 Process Control
And Process Groups). Process restricts the watchpoint to the chosen process. Expression is the variable
name in the program to be watched. Language is the language of the portion of the program containing
the expression.
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You can set a watchpoint for either a single process, or every process in a process group.
DDT will automatically remove a watchpoint once the target variable goes out of scope. If you are
watching the value pointed to by a variable, i.e. *p - you may want to continue watching the value at that
address even after p goes out of scope. You can do this by right-clicking on *p in the Watchpoints view
and selecting the Pin to address menu item. This replaces the variable p with its address so the watch
will not be removed when p goes out of scope.
6.14
Tracepoints
Tracepoints allow you to see what lines of code your program is executing – and the variables – without
stopping it. Whenever a thread reaches a tracepoint it will print the file and line number of the tracepoint
to the Input/Output view. You can also capture the value of any number of variables or expressions at
that point.
Examples of situations in which this feature will prove invaluable include
• Recording entry values in a function that is called many times, but crashes only occasionally. Set-
ting a tracepoint makes it easier to correlate the circumstances that cause a crash.
• Recording entry to multiple functions in a library – enabling the user (or library developer) to check
which functions are being called, and in which order. An example of this is the MPI History Plugin
(see Section 13.3 Using a Plugin, Section of this guide) which records MPI usage.
• Observing progress of an application and variation of values across processes without having to
interrupt the application.
6.14.1
Setting a Tracepoint
Tracepoints are added by either right-clicking on a line in the Source Code Viewer and selecting the Add
Tracepoint menu item, or by right-clicking in the Tracepoints view and selecting Add Tracepoint. If you
right-click in the Source Code Viewer a number of variables based on the current line of code will be
captures by default.
Tracepoints can lead to considerable resource consumption by the user interface if placed in areas likely
to generate a lot of passing. For example, if a tracepoint is placed inside of a loop with N iterations, then
N separate tracepoint passings will be recorded. Whilst Allinea DDT will attempt to merge such data
scalably, when alike tracepoints are passed in order between processes, where process behaviour is likely
to be divergent and unmergeable then a considerable load would then be caused.
If it is necessary to place a tracepoint inside a loop, set a condition on the tracepoint to ensure you only
log what is of use to you.
Tracepoints also momentarily stop processes at the tracepoint location in order to evaluate the expressions
and record their values, and hence if placed inside (eg.) a loop with a very large number of iterations –
or a function executed many times per second, then a slow down in the pace of your application will be
noticed.
6.14.2
Tracepoint Output
The output from the tracepoints can be found in the Tracepoint Output view.
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Figure 40: Output from Tracepoints in a Fortran application
Where tracepoints are passed by multiple processes within a short interval, the outputs will be merged.
Sparklines of the values recorded are shown for numeric values – along with the range of values obtained
– showing the variation across processes.
As alike tracepoints are merged then this can lose the order/causality between different processes in trace-
point output. For example, if process 0 passes a tracepoint at time T, and process 1 passes the tracepoint
at T + 0.001, then this will be shown as one passing of both process 0 and process 1, with no ordering
inferred.
Sequential consistency is preserved during merging, in that for any process, the sequence of tracepoints
for that process will be in order.
To find particular values or interesting patterns, use the Only show lines containing box at the bottom
of the panel. Tracepoint lines matching the text entered here will be shown, the rest will be hidden. To
search for a particular value, for example, try “my var: 34 “ - in this case the space at the end helps
distinguish between my var: 34 and my var: 345.
For more detailed analysis you may with to export the tracepoints – right-click and choose Export from
the pop-up menu. A HTML tracepoint log will be written using the same format as DDT's offline
mode.
6.15
Version Control Breakpoints and Tracepoints
Version control breakpoint/tracepoint insertion allows you to quickly record the state of the parts of the
target program that were last modified in a particular revision. The resulting tracepoint output may be
viewed in the Tracepoint Output tab or the Logbook tab and may be exported or saved as part of a logbook
or offline log.
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Figure 41: DDT with version control tracepoints
Version control tracepoints may be inserted either in the graphical interactive mode or in offline mode
via a command line argument.
In interactive mode enable “Version Control Information” from the “View” menu and wait for the annota-
tion column to appear in the code editor (this does not appear for files that are not tracked by a supported
version control system).
Figure 42: Version Control - Enable from Menu
Right click a line last modified by the revision of interest and choose “Trace Variables At This Revi-
sion”.
Figure 43: Version Control - Trace at this
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DDT will find all the source files modified in the revision, detect the variables on the lines modified in
the revision and insert tracepoints (pending if necessary). A progress dialog may be shown for lengthy
tasks.
Both the tracepoints and the tracepoint output in the Tracepoints, Tracepoint Output, and Logbook tabs
may be double-clicked during a session to jump to the corresponding line of source in the code viewer.
In offline mode supply the additional argument -trace-changes and DDT will apply the same pro-
cess as in interactive mode using the current revision of the repository.
By default version control tracepoints are removed after 20 hits. To change this hit limit set the envi-
ronment variable DDT_VCS_TRACEPOINT_HIT_LIMIT to an integer greater than or equal to 0. To
configure version control tracepoints to have no hit limit set this to 0.
6.16
Examining The Stack Frame
Figure 44: The Stack Tab
The stack back trace for the current process and thread are displayed under the Stack tab of the Variables
Window. When you select a stack frame DDT will jump to that position in the code (if it is available) and
will display the local variables for that frame. The toolbar can also be used to step up or down the stack,
or jump straight to the bottom-most frame.
6.17
Align Stacks
The align stacks button, or CTRL-A hotkey, sets the stack of the current thread on every process in a
group to the same level – where possible – as the current process.
This feature is particularly useful where processes are interrupted – by the pause button – and are at
different stages of computation. This enables tools such as the Cross-Process Comparison window to
compare equivalent local variables, and also simplifies casual browsing of values.
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6.18
``Where are my processes?'' - Viewing Stacks in Parallel
6.18.1
Overview
To find out where your program is, in one single view, look no further than the Parallel Stack View. It's
found in the bottom area of DDT's GUI, tabbed alongside Input/Output, Breakpoints and Watches:
Figure 45: DDT Parallel Stack View
Do you want to know where a group's processes are? Click on the group and look at the Parallel Stack
View – it shows a tree of functions, merged from every process in the group (by default). If there's only
one branch in this tree – one list of functions – then all your processes are at the same place. If there are
several different branches, then your group has split up and is in different parts of the code! Click on
any branch to see its location in the Source Code Viewer, or hover your mouse over it and a little popup
will list the processes at that location. Right-click on any function in the list and select New Group to
automatically gather the processes at that function together in a new group, labelled by the function's own
name.
The best way to learn about the Parallel Stack View is to simply use it to explore your program. Click on it
and see what happens. Create groups with it, and watch what happens to it as you step processes through
your code. The Parallel Stack View's ability to display and select large numbers of processes based on
their location in your code is invaluable when dealing with moderate to large numbers of processes.
6.18.2
The Parallel Stack View in Detail
The Parallel Stack View takes over much of the work of the Stack display, but instead of just showing
the current process, this view combines the call trees (commonly called stacks) from many processes
and displays them together. The call tree of a process is the list of functions (strictly speaking frames or
locations within a function) that lead to the current position in the source code. For example, if main()
calls read input(), and read input() calls open file(), and you stop the program inside
open file(), then the call tree will look like this:
main()
read_input()
open_file()
If a function was compiled with debug information (usually -g) then DDT adds extra information, telling
you the exact source file and line number that your code is on. Any functions without debug information
are greyed-out and are not shown by default. Functions without debug information are typically library
calls or memory allocation subroutines and are not generally of interest. To see the entire list of functions,
right-click on one and choose Show Children from the pop-up menu.
You can click on any function to select it as the 'current' function in DDT. If it was compiled with debug
information, then DDT will also display its source code in the main window, and its local variables and
so on in the other windows.
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One of the most important features of the Parallel Stack View is its ability to show the position of many
processes at once. Right-click on the view to toggle between:
1. Viewing all the processes in your program at once
2. Viewing all the processes in the current group at once (default)
3. Viewing only the current process
The function that DDT is currently displaying and using for the variable views is highlighted in dark blue.
Clicking on another function in the Parallel Stack View will select another frame for the source code and
variable views. It will also update the Stack display, since these two controls are complementary. If the
processes are at several different locations, then only the current process' location will be shown in dark
blue. The other processes' locations will be shown in a light blue:
Figure 46: Current Frame Highlighting in Parallel Stack View
In the example above, the program's processes are at two different locations. 1 process is in the main
function, at line 85 of hello.c. The other 15 processes are inside a function called func2, at line 34
of hello.c. The 15 processes reached func2 in the same way – main called func1 on line 123 of
hello.c, then func1 called func2 on line 40 of hello.c. Clicking on any of these functions will
take you to the appropriate line of source code, and display any local variables in that stack frame.
There are two optional columns in the Parallel Stack View. The first, Procs shows the number of processes
at each location. The second, Threads, shows the number of threads at each location. By default, only
the number of processes is shown. Right-click to turn these columns on and off. Note that in a normal,
single-threaded MPI application, each process has one thread and these two columns will show identical
information.
Hovering the mouse over any function in the Parallel Stack View displays the full path of the filename,
and a list of the process ranks that are at that location in the code:
Figure 47: Parallel Stack View tool tip
DDT is at its most intuitive when each process group is a collection of processes doing a similar task.
The Parallel Stack View is invaluable in creating and managing these groups. Simply right-click on any
function in the combined call tree and choose the New Group option. This will create a new process
group that contains only the processes sharing that location in code. By default DDT uses the name of
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the function for the group, or the name of the function with the file and line number if it's necessary to
distinguish the group further.
6.19
Browsing Source Code
Source code will be automatically displayed – when a process is stopped, when you select a process or
change position in the stack. If the source file cannot be found you will be prompted for its location.
DDT highlights lines of the source code to show where your program currently is. Lines that contain
processes from the current group are shaded in that group's colour. Lines only containing processes from
other groups are shaded in grey.
This pattern is repeated in the focus on process and thread modes. For example, when you focus on a
process, DDT highlights lines containing that process in the group colour, and other processes from that
group in grey.
DDT also highlights lines of code that are on the stack – functions that your program will return to when
it has finished executing the current one. These are drawn with a faded look to distinguish them from the
currently-executing lines.
You can hover the mouse over any highlighted line to see which processes/threads are currently on that
line. This information is presented in a variety of ways, depending on the current focus setting:
Focus on Group
A list of groups that are on the selected line, along with the processes in them on this line, and a list of
threads from the current process on the selected line.
Focus on Process
A list of the processes from the current group that are on this line, along with the threads from the current
process on the selected line.
Focus on Thread
A list of threads from the current process on the selected line.
The tool tip distinguishes between processes and threads that are currently executing that line, and ones
that are on the stack by grouping them under the headings On the stack and On this line.
Variables and Functions
Right-clicking on a variable or function name in the Source Code Viewer will make DDT check whether
there is a matching variable or function, and then display extra information and options in a sub-menu.
In the case of a variable, the type and value are displayed, along with options to view the variable in the
Cross-Process Comparison Window (CPC) or the Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer (MDA), or to drop
the variable into the Evaluate Window – each of which are described in the next chapter.
Figure 48: Right-Click Menu – Variable Options
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In the case of a function, it is also possible to add a breakpoint in the function, or to the source code of
the function when available.
Figure 49: Right-Click Menu – Function Options
6.20
Simultaneously Viewing Multiple Files
DDT presents a tabbed pane view of source files, but occasionally it may be useful to view two files
simultaneously – whilst tracking two different processes for example.
Inside the code viewing panel, right-click to split the view. This will bring a second tabbed pane which
can be viewed beneath the first one. When viewing further files, the currently 'active' panel will display
the file. Click on one of the views to make it active.
The split view can be reset to a single view by right-clicking in the code panel and deselecting the split
view option.
Figure 50: Horizontal Alignment Of Multiple Source Files
6.21
Signal Handling
By default DDT will stop a process if it encounters one of the standard signals (but see section 6.21.1
Custom Signal Handling (Signal Dispositions) below). For example:
• SIGSEGV – Segmentation fault
The process has attempted to access memory that is not valid for that process. Often this will be
caused by reading beyond the bounds of an array, or from a pointer that has not been allocated yet.
The DDT Memory Debugging feature may help to resolve this problem.
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• SIGFPE – Floating Point Exception
This is raised typically for integer division by zero, or dividing the most negative number by -1.
Whether or not this occurs is Operating System dependent, and not part of the POSIX standard.
Linux platforms will raise this.
Note that floating point division by zero will not necessarily cause this exception to be raised,
behaviour is compiler dependent. The special value Inf or -Inf may be generated for the data,
and the process would not be stopped.
• SIGPIPE – Broken Pipe
A broken pipe has been detected whilst writing.
• SIGILL – Illegal Instruction
SIGUSR1, SIGUSR2, SIGCHLD, SIG63 and SIG64 are passed directly through to the user process
without being intercepted by DDT.
6.21.1
Custom Signal Handling (Signal Dispositions)
You can change the way individual signals are handled using the Signal Handling window. To open the
window select the Control Signal Handling... menu item.
Figure 51: Signal Handling dialog
Set a signal's action to Stop to stop a process whenever it encounters the given signal, or Ignore to let the
process receive the signal and continue playing without being stopped by the debugger.
6.21.2
Sending Signals
The Send Signal window (select the Control Send Signal... menu item) allows a signal to be sent to
the debugged processes. Select the signal you want to send from the drop-down list and click the Send
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to process button.
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7
DDT: Viewing Variables And Data
The Variables Window contains two tabs that provide different ways to list your variables. The Locals
tab contains all the variables for the current stack frame, while the Current Line(s) tab displays all the
variables referenced on the currently selected lines.
Right clicking in these windows brings up additional options – including the ability to edit values (in the
Evaluations window), to change the display base, or to compare data across processes and threads. The
right-click menu will also allow you to choose whether the fields in structures (classes or derived types)
should be displayed alphabetically by element name or not – which is useful for when structures have
very many different fields.
Figure 52: Displaying Variables
7.1
Sparklines
Numerical values may have sparklines displayed next to them. A sparkline is a line graph of process rank
against value of the related expression. The graph is bound by the minimum and maximum values found,
or in the case that all values are equal the line is drawn across the vertical center of the highlighted region.
Erroneous values such as Nan and Inf are represented as red, vertical bars. Clicking on a sparkline will
display the Cross-Process Comparison window for closer analysis.
7.2
Current Line
You can select a single line by clicking on it in the code viewer - or multiple lines by clicking and dragging.
The variables are displayed in a tree view so that user-defined classes or structures can be expanded to
view the variables contained within them. You can drag a variable from this window into the Evaluate
Window; it will then be evaluated in whichever stack frame, thread or process you select.
7.3
Local Variables
The Locals tab contains local variables for the current process's currently active thread and stack frame.
For Fortran codes the amount of data reported as local can be substantial – as this can include many
global or common block arrays. Should this prove problematic, it is best to conceal this tab underneath
the Current Line(s) tab as this will not then update after ever step.
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It is worth noting that variables defined within common blocks may not appear in the local variables tab
with some compilers, this is because they are considered to be global variables when defined in a common
memory space.
The Locals view compares the value of scalar variables against other processes. If a value varies across
processes in the current group the value is highlighted in green.
When stepping or switching processes if the value of a variable is different from the previous position or
process it is highlighted in blue.
After stepping out of function the return value is displayed at the top of the Locals view (for selected
debuggers).
7.4
Arbitrary Expressions And Global Variables
Figure 53: Evaluating Expressions
Since the global variables and arbitrary expressions do not get displayed with the local variables, you
may wish to use the Current Line(s) tab in the Variables window and click on the line in the Source Code
Viewer containing a reference to the global variable.
Alternatively, the Evaluate panel can be used to view the value of any arbitrary expression. Right-click on
the Evaluate window, click on Add Expression, and type in the expression required in the current source
file language. This value of the expression will be displayed for the current process and stack/thread, and
is updated after every step.
Note: at the time of writing DDT does not apply the usual rules of precedence to logical Fortran expres-
sions, such as x .ge.
32 .and.
x .le.
45. For now, please bracket such expressions
thoroughly: (x .ge.
32) .and. (x .le.
45). It is also worth noting that although the Fortran
syntax allows you to use keywords as variable names, DDT will not be able to evaluate such variables
on most platforms. Please contact support@allinea.com if this is a problem for you.
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7.4.1
Fortran Intrinsics
The following Fortran intrinsics are supported by the default GNU debugger included with DDT:
ABS
AIMAG
CEILING
CMPLX
FLOOR
IEEE IS FINITE
IEEE IS INF
IEEE IS NAN
IEEE IS NORMAL
ISFINITE
ISINF
ISNAN
ISNORMAL
MOD
MODULO
REALPART
Support in other debuggers, including the CUDA debugger variants, may vary.
7.4.2
Changing the language of an Expression
Ordinarily, expressions in the Evaluate window and Locals/Current windows are evaluated in the lan-
guage of the current stack frame. This may not always be appropriate – for example a pointer to user
defined structure may be passed as value within a Fortran section of code, and you may wish to view the
fields of the C structure. Alternatively, you may wish to view a global value in a C++ class whilst your
process is in a Fortran subroutine.
You can change the language that DDT uses for your expressions by right clicking on the expression, and
clicking Change Type/Language - selecting the appropriate language for the expression. To restore the
default behaviour, change this back to Auto.
7.4.3
Macros and #defined Constants
By default, many compilers will not output sufficient information to allow the debugger to display the
values of “#defined” constants or macros – as including this information can greatly increase executable
sizes.
With the GNU compiler, adding the “-g3” option to the command line options will generate extra defi-
nition information which DDT will then be able to display.
7.5
Help With Fortran Modules
An executable containing Fortran modules presents a special set of problems for developers:
• If there are many modules, each of which contains many procedures and variables (each of which
can have the same name as something else in a separate Fortran module), keeping track of which
name refers to which entity can become difficult
• When the Locals or Current Line(s) tabs (within the Variables window) display one of these vari-
ables, to which Fortran module does the variable belong?
• How do you refer to a particular module variable in the Evaluate window?
• How do you quickly jump to the source code for a particular Fortran module procedure?
To help with this, DDT provides a Fortran Modules tab in the Project Navigator window.
When DDT begins a session, Fortran module membership is automatically found from the information
compiled into the executable.
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A list of Fortran modules found is displayed in a simple tree view within the Fortran Modules tab of the
Project Navigator window.
Each of these modules can be 'expanded' (by clicking on the + symbol to the left of the module name)
to display the list of member procedures, member variables and the current values of those member
variables.
Clicking on one of the displayed procedure names will cause the Source Code Viewer to jump to that
procedure's location in the source code. In addition, the return-type of the procedure will be displayed at
the bottom of the Fortran Modules tab – Fortran subroutines will have a return-type of VOID ().
Similarly, clicking on one of the displayed variable names will cause the type of that variable to be
displayed at the bottom of the Fortran Modules tab.
A module variable can be dragged and dropped into the Evaluate window. Here, all of the usual Evaluate
window functionality applies to the module variable. To help with variable identification in the Evaluate
window, module variable names are prefixed with the Fortran module name and two colons ::.
Right-clicking within the Fortran Modules tab will bring up a context menu. For variables, choices on
this menu will include sending the variable to the Evaluate window, the Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer
and the Cross-Process Comparison Viewer.
Some caveats apply to the information displayed within the Fortran Modules tab:
1. The Fortran Modules tab will not be displayed if the underlying debugger does not support the
retrieval and manipulation of Fortran module data.
2. The Fortran Modules tab will display an empty module list if the Fortran modules debug data is
not present or in a format understood by DDT.
One limitation of the Fortran Modules tab is that the modules debug data compiled into the executable
does not include any indication of the module USE hierarchy (e.g. if module A USEs module B, the
inherited members of module B are not shown under the data displayed for module A). Consequently,
the Fortran Modules tab shows the module USE hierarchy in a flattened form, one level deep.
7.6
Viewing Complex Numbers in Fortran
When working with complex numbers, you may wish to view only the real or imaginary elements of
the number. This can useful when evaluating expressions, or viewing an array in the Multi Dimensional
Array Viewer (See section 7.15 Multi Dimensional Array Viewer (MDA)).
You can use the Fortran intrinsic functions REALPART and AIMAG to get the real or imaginary parts of
a number, or their C99 counterparts creal and cimag.
Complex numbers in Fortran can also be accessed as an array, where element 1 is the real part, and element
2 is the imaginary part.
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Figure 54: Viewing the Fortran complex number 3+4i
7.7
C++ STL Support
DDT uses pretty printers for the GNU C++ STL implementation and Nokia's Qt library, and Boost, de-
signed for use with the GNU Debugger. These are used automatically to present such C++ data in a more
understandable format.
For some compilers, the STL pretty printing can be confused by non-standard implementations of STL
types used by a compiler's own STL implementation. In this case, and in the case where you wish to see
the underlying implementation of an STL type, you can disable pretty printing by running DDT with the
environment variable setting DDT DISABLE PRETTY PRINT=1.
7.8
Custom Pretty Printers
In addition to the pre-installed pretty printers you may also use your own GDB pretty printers.
Note: custom pretty printers are only supported when using the GDB 7.6.2 debugger. You must select
this debugger on the System Settings page of the Options window.
A GDB pretty printer consists of an auto-load script that is automatically loaded when a particular
executable or shared object is loaded and the actual pretty printer Python classes themselves. To make a
pretty printer available in DDT copy it to /.allinea/gdb.
7.8.1
Example
An example pretty printer may be found in {installation-directory}/examples.
Compile the fruit example program using the GNU C++ compiler as follows:
cd {installation-directory}/examples
make -f fruit.makefile
Now start DDT with the example program as follows:
ddt -start {installation-directory}/examples/fruit
After the program has started right-click on line 20 and click the Run to here menu item. Click on the
Locals tab and notice that the internal variable of myFruit are displayed.
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Now install the fruit pretty printer by copying the files to /.allinea/gdb as follows:
cp -r {installation-directory}/examples/fruit-pretty-printer/* ˜/.
allinea/gdb/
Re-run the program in DDT and run to line 20, as before. Click on the Locals tab and notice that now,
instead of the internal variable of myFruit, the type of fruit is displayed instead.
7.9
Viewing Array Data
Fortran users may find that it is not possible to view the upper bounds of an array. This is due to a lack
of information from the compiler. In these circumstances DDT will display the array with a size of 0,
or simply <unknown bounds>. It is still possible to view the contents of the array however using the
Evaluate window to view array(1), array(2), etc. as separate entries.
To tell DDT the size of the array right-click on the array and select the Edit Type... menu option. This
will open a window like the one below. Enter the real type of the array in the New Type box.
Figure 55: Edit Type window
Alternatively the MDA can be used to view the entire array.
7.10
UPC Support
Allinea DDT supports many different UPC compilers – including the GNU UPC compiler, the Berkeley
UPC compiler and those provided by Cray and SGI. Note that in order to enable UPC support, you may
need to select the appropriate MPI/UPC implementation from DDT's Options/System menu. See Section
4.1.5 UPC
Debugging UPC applications introduces a small number of changes to the user interface.
• Processes will be identified as UPC Threads, this is purely a terminology change for consistency
with the UPC language terminology. UPC Threads will have behaviour identical to that of separate
processes: groups, process control and cross-process data comparison for example will apply across
UPC Threads.
• The type qualifier shared is given for shared arrays or pointers to shared.
• Shared pointers are printed as a triple (address, thread, phase). For indefinitely blocked pointers
the phase is omitted.
• Referencing shared items will yield a shared pointer and pointer arithmetic may be performed on
shared pointers.
• Dereferencing a shared pointer (e.g. dereferencing *(&x[n] + 1])) will correctly evaluate and
fetch remote data where required.
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• Values in shared arrays are not automatically compared across processes: the value of x[i] is
by definition identical across all processes. It is not possible to identify pending read/write to
remote data. Non-shared data types such as local data or local array elements will still be compared
automatically.
• Distributed arrays are handled implicitly by the debugger. There is no need to use the explicit
distributed dimensions feature in the MDA.
All other components of DDT will be identical to debugging any multi-process code.
7.11
Changing Data Values
In the Evaluate window, the value of an expression may be set by right-clicking and selecting Edit Value.
This will allow you to change the value of the expression for the current process, current group, or for all
processes.
Note: The variable must exist in the current stack frame for each process you wish to assign the value
to.
7.12
Viewing Numbers In Different Bases
When you are viewing an integer numerical expression you may right-click on the value and use the View
As sub menu to change which base the value is displayed in. The View As Default option displays the
value in its original (default) base.
7.13
Examining Pointers
You can examine pointer contents by clicking the + next to the variable or expression. This will auto-
matically dereference the pointer. You can also use the View As Vector, Reference, or Dereference menu
items.
7.14
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in the Variable View
When viewing a multi-dimensional array in either the Locals, Current Line(s) or Evaluate windows it is
possible to expand the array to view the contents of each cell. In C/C++ the array will expand from left
to right (x, y, z will be seen with the x column first, then under each x cell a y column etc.) whereas in
Fortran the opposite will be seen with arrays being displayed from right to left as you read it (so x, y, z
would have z as the first column with y under each z cell etc.)
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Figure 56: 2D Array In C: type of tables int[12][12]
Figure 57: 2D Array In Fortran: type of twodee is integer(3,5)
7.15
Multi Dimensional Array Viewer (MDA)
DDT provides a Multi-Dimensional Array (MDA) Viewer (fig. 58) for viewing multi-dimensional ar-
rays.
To open the Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer, right-click on a variable in the Source Code, Locals, Cur-
rent Line(s) or Evaluate views and select the View Array (MDA) context menu option. You can also
open the MDA directly by selecting the Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer menu item from the View
menu.
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Figure 58: Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer
If you open the MDA by right clicking on a variable, DDT will automatically set the Array Expression
and other parameters based on the type of the variable. Click the Evaluate button to see the contents of
the array in the Data Table.
The Full Window button hides the settings at the top of the window so the table of values occupies the
full window, allowing you to make full use of your screen space. Click the button again to reveal the
settings again.
7.15.1
Array Expression
The Array Expression is an expression containing a number of subscript metavariables that are substituted
with the subscripts of the array. For example, the expression myArray($i, $j) has two metavariables,
$i and $j. The metavariables are unrelated to the variables in your program.
The range of each metavariable is defined in the boxes below the expression, e.g. Range of $i. The Array
Expression is evaluated for each combination of $i, $j, etc. and the results shown in the Data Table. You
can also control whether each metavariable is shown in the Data Table using Rows or Columns.
The metavariables may be re-ordered by dragging and dropping them. For C/C++ expressions the major
dimension is on the left and the minor dimension on the right, for Fortran expressions the major dimension
is on the right and the minor dimension on the left. Distributed dimensions may not be re-ordered – they
must always be the most major dimensions.
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7.15.2
Filtering by Value
You may want the Data Table to only show elements that fit a certain criteria, e.g. elements that are zero.
If the Only show if box is checked then only elements that match the boolean expression in the box are
displayed in the Data Table, e.g. $value == 0. The special metavariable $value in the expression
is replaced by the actual value of each element. The Data Table automatically hides rows or columns in
the table where no elements match the expression.
7.15.3
Distributed Arrays
A distributed array is an array that is distributed across one or more processes as local arrays.
The Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer can display certain types of distributed arrays, namely UPC shared
arrays (for supported UPC implementations), and general arrays where the distributed dimensions are
the most major (i.e. the distributed dimensions change the most slowly) and are independent from the
non-distributed dimensions.
UPC shared arrays are treated the same as local arrays, simply right-click on the array variable and select
View Array (MDA).
To view a non-UPC distributed array first create a process group containing all the processes that the array
is distributed over. If the array is distributed over all processes in your job then you can simply select
the All group instead. Right-click on the local array variable in the Source Code, Locals, Current Line(s)
or Evaluate views. The Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer window will open with the Array Expression
already filled in. Enter the number of distributed array dimensions in the corresponding box. A new
subscript metavariable ($p, $q, etc.) will be automatically added for each distributed dimension. Enter
the ranges of the distributed dimensions so that the product is equal to the number of processes in the
current process group, then click the Evaluate button.
7.15.4
Advanced: How Arrays Are Laid Out in the Data Table
The Data Table is two dimensional, but the Multi-Dimensional Array Viewer may be used to view arrays
with any number of dimensions, as the name implies. This section describes how multi-dimensional
arrays are displayed in the two dimensional table.
Each subscript metavariable ($i, $j, $p, $q, etc.) maps to a separate dimension on a hypercube. Usually
the number of metavariables is equal to the number of dimensions in a given array, but this does not
necessarily need to be the case, e.g. myArray($i, $j) * $k introduces an extra dimension, $k, as
well as the two dimensions corresponding to the two dimensions of myArray.
The figure below corresponds to the expression myArray($i, $j) with $i = 0..3 and $j =
0..4.
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Figure 59: myArray($i, $j) with $i = 0..3 and $j = 0..4.
Now let's say myArray is part of a three dimensional array distributed across three processes. The figure
below shows what the local arrays look like for each process.
Figure 60: The local array myArray($i, $j) with $i = 0..3 and $j = 0..4 on ranks 0 – 2
And as a three dimensional distributed array with $p the distributed dimension:
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Figure 61: A three dimensional distributed array comprised of the local array myArray($i, $j) with $i =
0..3 and $j = 0..4 on ranks 0 – 2 with $p the distributed dimension
This cube is projected (just like 3D projection) onto the two dimensional Data Table. Dimensions marked
Display as Rows are shown in rows, and dimensions marked Display as Columns are shown in columns,
as you would expect.
More than one dimension may viewed as Rows, or more than one dimension viewed as Columns. The
dimension that changes fastest depends on the language your program is written in. For C/C++ programs
the leftmost metavariable (usually $i for local arrays or $p for distributed arrays) changes the most
slowly (just like with C array subscripts). The rightmost dimension changes the most quickly. For Fortran
programs the order is reversed (the rightmost is most major, the leftmost most minor).
The figure below shows how the three dimensional distributed array above is projected onto the two
dimensional Data Table:
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Figure 62: A three dimensional distributed array comprised of the local array myArray($i, $j) with $i =
0..3 and $j = 0..4 on ranks 0 – 2 projected onto the Data Table with $p (the distributed dimension) and
$j displayed as Columns and $i displayed as Rows.
7.15.5
Auto Update
If you check the Auto Update check box the Data Table will be automatically updated as you switch
between processes/threads and step through the code.
7.15.6
Statistics
The Statistics tab displays information which may be of interest, such as the range of the values in the
table, and the number of special numerical values, such as nan or inf.
7.15.7
Export
You may export the contents of the results table to a file in the Comma Separated Values (CSV) or HDF5
format that can be plotted or analysed in your favourite spreadsheet or mathematics program.
There are two CSV export options: List (one row per value) and Table (same layout as the on screen
table).
Note: If you export a Fortran array from DDT in HDF5 format the contents of the array are written in
column major order. This is the order expected by most Fortran code, but the arrays will be transposed if
read with the default settings by C-based HDF5 tools. Most HDF5 tools have an option to switch between
row major and column major order.
7.15.8
Visualization
If your system is OpenGL-capable then a 2-D slice of an array, or table of expressions, may be displayed
as a surface in 3-D space through the Multi-Dimensional Array (MDA) Viewer. You can only plot one
or two dimensions at a time – if your table has more than two dimensions the Visualise button will be
disabled. After filling the table of the MDA Viewer with values (see previous section), click Visualise to
open a 3-D view of the surface. To display surfaces from two or more different processes on the same
plot simply select another process in the main process group window and click Evaluate in the MDA
window, and when the values are ready, click Visualize again. The surfaces displayed on the graph may
be hidden and shown using the check boxes on the right-hand side of the window.
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The graph may be moved and rotated using the mouse and a number of extra options are available from
the window toolbar.
The mouse controls are:
• Hold down the left button and drag the mouse to rotate the graph.
• Hold down the right button to zoom – drag the mouse forwards to zoom in and backwards to zoom
out.
• Hold the middle button and drag the mouse to move the graph.
Please note: DDT requires OpenGL to run. If your machine does not have hardware OpenGL support,
software emulation libraries such as MesaGL are also supported.
In some configurations OpenGL is known to crash – a work around if the 3D visualization crashes is to
set the environment variable LIBGL ALWAYS INDIRECT to 1 – the precise configuration which triggers
this problem is not known.
Figure 63: DDT Visualization
The toolbar and menu offer options to configure lighting and other effects, including the ability to save an
image of the surface as it currently appears. There is even a stereo vision mode that works with red-blue
glasses to give a convincing impression of depth and form. Contact Allinea if you need to get hold of
some 3D glasses.
7.16
Cross-Process and Cross-Thread Comparison
The Cross-Process Comparison and Cross-Thread Comparison windows can be used to analyse expres-
sions calculated on each of the processes in the current process group. Each window displays information
in three ways: raw comparison, statistically, and graphically.
This is a more detailed view than the sparklines that are automatically drawn against a variable in the
evaluations and locals/current line windows for multi-process sessions.
To compare values across processes or threads, right-click on a variable inside the Source Code, Locals,
Current Line(s) or Evaluate windows and then choose one of the View Across Processes (CPC) or View
Across Threads (CTC) options. You can also bring up the CPC or CTC directly from the View menu in
the main menu bar. Alternatively, clicking on a sparkline will bring up the CPC.
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Figure 64: Cross-Process Comparison – Compare View
Processes and threads are grouped by expression value when using the raw comparison. The precision
of this grouping can be specified (for floating point values) by filling the Limit box.
If you are comparing across processes, you can turn each of these groupings of processes into a DDT pro-
cess group by clicking the create groups button. This will create several process groups – one for each line
in the panel. Using this capability large process groups can be managed with simple expressions to create
groups. These expressions are any valid expression in the present language (i.e. C/C++/Fortran).
For threaded applications, when using the CTC, if Allinea DDT is able to identify OpenMP thread IDs,
a third column will also display the corresponding OpenMP thread IDs for each thread that has each
value.
You can enter a second boolean expression in the Only show if box to control which values are displayed.
Only values for which the boolean expression evaluates to true / .TRUE. are displayed in the results
table. The special metavariable $value in the expression is replaced by the actual value. Click the Show
Examples link to see examples.
The Align Stack Frames check box tries to automatically make sure all processes and threads are in the
same stack frame when comparing the variable value. This is very helpful for most programs, but you
may wish to disable it if different processes/threads run entirely different programs.
The Use as MPI Rank button is described in the next section, Assigning MPI Ranks.
You can create a group for the ranks corresponding to each unique value by clicking the Create Groups
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button.
The Export button allows you to export the list of values and corresponding ranks as a Comma Separated
Values (CSV) file.
The Full Window button hides the settings at the top of the window so the list of values occupies the full
window, allowing you to make full use of your screen space. Click the button again to rev e al the settings
again.
The Statistics panel shows Maximum, Minimum, Variance and other statistics for numerical values.
7.17
Assigning MPI Ranks
Sometimes, DDT cannot detect the MPI rank for each of your processes. This might be because you are
using an experimental MPI version, or because you have attached to a running program, or only part of a
running program. Whatever the reason, it is easy to tell DDT what each process should be called.
To begin, choose a variable that holds the MPI world rank for each process, or an expression that calculates
it. Use the Cross-Process Comparison window to evaluate the expression across all the processes. If the
variable is valid, the Use as MPI Rank button will be enabled. Click on it; DDT will immediately relabel
all its processes with these new values.
What makes a variable or expression valid? These criteria must be met:
1. It must be an integer
2. Every process must have a unique number afterwards
These are the only restrictions. As you can see, there is no need to use the MPI rank if you have an
alternate numbering scheme that makes more sense in your application. In fact you can relabel only a
few of the processes and not all, if you prefer, so long as afterwards every process still has a unique
number.
7.18
Viewing Registers
To view the values of machine registers on the currently selected process, select the Registers window
from the View pull-down menu. These values will be updated after each instruction, change in thread or
change in stack frame.
Figure 65: Register View
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7.19
Interacting Directly With The Debugger
Figure 66: Raw Command Window
DDT provides a Raw Command window that will allow you to send commands directly to the debugger
interface. This window bypasses DDT and its book-keeping - if you set a breakpoint here, DDT will not
list this in the breakpoint list, for example.
Be careful with this window; we recommend you only use it where the graphical interface does not
provide the information or control you require. Sending commands such as quit or kill may cause
the interface to stop responding to DDT.
Each command is sent to a group of processes (selected from within the window box - not necessarily
the current group). To communicate with a single process, create a new group and drag that process into
it.
The Raw Command window will not work with playing processes and requires all processes in the chosen
group to be paused.
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8
DDT: Program Input And Output
DDT collects and displays output from all processes under the Input/Output tab. Both standard output
and error are shown, although on most MPI implementations, error is not buffered but output is and
consequently can be delayed.
8.1
Viewing Standard Output And Error
Figure 67: DDT Standard Output Window
The Input/Output tab is at the bottom of the screen (by default).
The output may be selected and copied to the X-clipboard.
8.2
Displaying Selected Processes
You can choose whether to view the output for all processes, or just a single process.
Note: Some MPI implementations pipe stdin, stdout and stderr from every process through mpirun or
rank 0.
MPI users should note that most MPI implementations place their own restrictions on program output.
Some buffer it all until MPI Finalize is called, others may ignore it or send it all through to one
process. If your program needs to emit output as it runs, Allinea suggest writing to a file.
All users should note that many systems buffer stdout but not stderr. If you do not see your stdout
appearing immediately, try adding an fflush(stdout) or equivalent to your code.
8.3
Saving Output
By right-clicking on the text it is possible to save it to a file. You also have the option to copy a selection
to the clipboard.
8.4
Sending Standard Input
DDT provides an stdin file box in the Run window. This allows you to choose a file to be used as the
standard input (stdin) for your program. (DDT will automatically add arguments to mpirunto ensure
your input file is used.)
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Alternatively, you may enter the arguments directly in the mpirun Arguments box. For example, if using
MPI directly from the command-line you would normally use an option to the mpirunsuch as -stdin
filename, then you may add the same options to the mpirun Arguments box when starting your DDT
session in the Run window.
It is also possible to enter input during a session. Start your program as normal, then switch to the
Input/Output panel. Here you can see the output from your program and type input you wish to send.
You may also use the More button to send input from a file, or send an EOF character.
Remember: Although input can be sent while your program is paused, the program must then be played
to read the input and act upon it.
If you are currently viewing output for all processes then the input you type will also be sent to all
processes, similarly if you are currently viewing the output for a single process then the input will be sent
to just that process.
Figure 68: DDT Sending Input
Note: If DDT is running on a fork-based system such as Scyld, or a -comm=shared compiled MPICH 1,
your program may not receive an EOF correctly from the input file. If your program seems to hang while
waiting for the last line or byte of input, this is likely to be the problem. See the E General Troubleshooting
and Known Issues or contact Allinea for a list of possible fixes.
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9
DDT: Logbook
The logbook automatically generates a log of the user's interaction with DDT, e.g. setting a breakpoint
or playing the program. For each stop of the program, the reason and location is recorded together with
the parallel stacks and local variables for one process.
Tracepoint values and output are logged as well.
Figure 69: Logbook example of a debug session
The user can export the current logbook as HTML or compare it to a previously exported one.
This enables comparative debugging and repeatability – it is always clear how a certain situation in the
debugger was caused as the previous steps are visible.
9.1
Usage
The logbook is always on and does not require any additional configuration. It is integrated as Logbook
tab at the bottom of the main window beside the Tracepoint Output tab.
To export the logbook click on file icon on RHS and choose a filename. A previously saved logbook can
be opened using a Tools menu option.
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9.2
Comparison Window
Two logbooks can be compared side by side with the logbook comparison window. Either click the
'compare' icon on the right hand side of the Logbook View from the Tools menu or use the same icon from
the Logbook tab. The current logbook can be compared with a file, or two files can be compared.
To easily spot differences the user can first align both logbooks to corresponding entries and then press the
Sync button. This ensures both vertical and horizontal scrollbars of the logbooks are tied together.
Figure 70: Logbook comparison window with tracepoint difference selected
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10
DDT: Message Queues
DDT's Message Queue debugging feature shows the status of the message buffers of MPI – for example
showing the messages that have been sent by a process but not yet received by the target.
You can use DDT to detect common errors such as deadlock – where all processes are waiting for each
other, or for detecting when messages are present that are unexpected, which can correspond to two
processes disagreeing about the state of progress through a program.
This capability relies on the MPI implementation supporting this via a debugging support library: the
majority of MPIs do this. Furthermore, not all implementations support the capability to the same degree,
and a variance between the information provided by each implementation is to be expected.
10.1
Viewing The Message Queues
Open the Message Queues window by selecting Message Queues from the Tools menu. The Message
Queues window will query the MPI processes for information about the state of the queues.
Whilst the window is open, you can click Update to refresh the current queue information. Please note
that this will stop all playing processes. While DDT is gathering the data a “Please Wait” dialog may be
displayed and you can cancel the request at any time.
DDT will automatically load the message queue support library from your MPI implementation (pro-
vided one exists). If it fails, an error message will be shown. Common reasons for failure to load in-
cluded:
• The support library does not exist.
Most MPIs will build the library by default, without additional configuration flags. MPICH 2 and
MPICH 3 must be configured with the –-enable-debuginfo argument. MPICH 1.2.x must
be configured with the --enable-debug argument. Some MPIs – notably Cray's MPI – do not
support message queue debugging at all.
LAM and Open MPI automatically compile the library.
• The support library is not available on the compute nodes where the MPI processes are running.
Please ensure the library is available – and set DDT QUEUE DLL if necessary to force using the
library in its new location.
• The support library has moved from its original installation location.
Please ensure the proper procedure for the MPI configuration is used – this may require you to
specify the installation directory as a configuration option.
Alternatively, you can specifically include the path to the support library in the LD_LIBRARY_
PATH, or if this is not convenient you can set the environment variable, DDT_QUEUE_DLL, to the
absolute pathname of the library itself (e.g. /usr/local/mpich-1.2.7/lib/libtvmpich.
so).
• The MPI is built to a different bit-size to the debugger.
In the unlikely case that the MPI is not built to the bit-size of the operating system, then the debugger
may not be able to find a support library that is the correct size. This is unsupported.
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10.2
Interpreting the Message Queues
Figure 71: Message Queue Window
To see the messages, you must select a communicator to see the messages in that group. The ranks dis-
played in the diagram are the ranks within the communicator (not MPI_COMM_WORLD), if the Show Local
Ranks option is selected. To see the 'usual' ranks, select Show Global Ranks. The messages displayed can
be restricted to particular processes or groups of processes. To restrict the display in the grid to a single
process, select Individual Processes in the Display mode selector, and select the rank of the process. To
select a group of processes, select Process Groups in the Display mode selector and select the ring arc
corresponding to the required group. Both of these display modes support multiple selections.
There are three different types of message queues about which there is information. Different colours are
used to display messages from each type of queue.
Label
Description
Send Queue
Calls to MPI send functions that have not yet completed.
Receive Queue
Calls to MPI receive functions that have not yet completed.
Unexpected Message Queue
Represents messages received by the system but the correspond-
ing receive function call has not yet been made.
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Messages in the Send queue are represented by a red arrow, pointing from the sender to the recipient.
The line is solid on the sender side, but dashed on the received side (to represent a message that has been
Sent but not yet been Received).
Messages in the Receive queue are represented by a green arrow, pointing from the sender to the recipient.
The line is dashed on the sender side, but solid on the recipient side (to represent the recipient being ready
to receive a message that has not yet been sent).
Messages in the Unexpected queue are represented by a dashed blue arrow, pointing from sender of the
unexpected message to the recipient.
A message to self is indicated by a line with one end at the centre of the diagram.
Please note that the quality and availability of message queue data can vary considerably between MPI
implementations – some of the data can therefore be incomplete.
10.3
Deadlock
A loop in the graph can indicate deadlock – every process waiting to receive from the preceding process
in the loop.
For synchronous communications (eg. MPI Ssend) then this is invariably a problem.
For other types of communication it can be the case (eg. with MPI Send) that, for example, messages are
'in the ether' or in some O/S buffer and the send part of the communication is complete but the receive
hasn't started. If the loop persists after playing the processes and interrupting them again, this indicates a
likely deadlock.
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11
DDT: Memory Debugging
Allinea DDT has a powerful parallel memory debugging capability. This feature intercepts calls to the
system memory allocation library, recording memory usage and monitoring correct usage of the library
by performing heap and bounds checking.
Typical problems that can be resolved by using Allinea DDT with memory debugging enabled include:
• Memory exhaustion due to memory leaks can be prevented by examining the Current Memory
Usage display which groups and quantifies memory according to the location at which blocks have
been allocated.
• Persistent but random crashes caused by access to memory beyond the bounds of an allocation
block – can be resolved by using the Guard Pages feature
• Crashing due to deallocation of the same memory block twice and other forms deallocation of an
invalid pointers – for example deallocating a pointer that is not at the start of an allocation.
11.1
Enabling Memory Debugging
To enable memory debugging within Allinea DDT, from the Run window click on the Memory Debugging
checkbox.
The default options are usually sufficient, but you may need to configure extra options (see below) if you
have a multithreaded application or multithreaded MPI – such as that found on systems using Open MPI
with Infiniband, or a Cray XE6 system.
With the Memory Debugging setting enabled, start your application as normal. Allinea DDT will take
care of ensuring that the settings are propagated through your MPI or batch system when your application
starts.
If a problem is detected and it was not possible to load the memory debugging library, a message will
be displayed – and you should refer to the Configuration section in this chapter for suggested resolution
steps.
Note: Memory debugging is not supported for programs that use the Xeon Phi #pragma offload.
11.2
CUDA Memory Debugging
Allinea DDT provides two options for debugging memory errors in CUDA programs (found in the CUDA
section of the Run window):
When the Track GPU allocations option is enabled Allinea DDT tracks CUDA memory allocations made
by the host (i.e. allocations made using functions such as cudaMalloc). You can find how much
memory is allocated and where it was allocated from in the Current Memory Usage window. DDT will
also detect common programming errors such as freeing memory twice.
Allocations are tracked separately for each GPU and the host (enabling Track GPU allocations will auto-
matically track host-only memory allocations made using malloc, etc. as well). You can select between
GPUs using the drop-down list in the top-right corner of the Memory Usage and Memory Statistics win-
dows.
The Detect invalid read/writes option turns on the CUDA-MEMCHECK error detection tool which can
detect problems such as out-of-bounds and misaligned global memory accesses.
See section 14.2 Preparing to Debug GPU Code before starting DDT.
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11.3
Configuration
Whilst configuration is often not necessary, it can be used to increase or change the memory checks and
protection or to alter the information that is available. A summary of the settings is displayed on the Run
dialog in the Memory Debugging section.
To examine or change the options, select the Details button adjacent to the Memory Debugging checkbox
on the Run dialog, which then displays the Memory Debugging Options window.
Figure 72: Memory Debugging Options
The two most significant options are:
1. Preload the memory debugging library - when this is checked, DDT will automatically load the
memory debugging library. DDT can only preload the memory debugging library when you start
a program through DDT and it uses shared libraries.
Preloading is not possible with statically-linked programs or when attaching to a running process.
See section 11.3.1 Static Linking section for more information on static linking.
When attaching, you can set the DMALLOC_OPTIONS environment variable before running your
program or see section 11.3.3 Changing Settings at Run Time section below.
2. The box showing C/Fortran, No Threads in the screen shot. You should choose the option that
best matches your program – It is often sufficient to leave this set to C++/Threaded rather than
continually changing this setting.
The Heap Debugging section allows you to trade speed for thoroughness. The two most important things
to remember are:
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1. Even the fastest (leftmost) setting will catch trivial memory errors such as deallocating memory
twice.
2. The further right you go, the more slowly your program will execute. In practice, the Balanced
setting is fast enough to use and will catch almost all errors. If you come across a memory error
that's difficult to pin down, choosing the Thorough might expose the problem earlier, but you'll
need to be very patient on large, memory intensive codes (also see 11.3.3 Changing Settings at
Run Time).
You can see exactly which checks are enabled for each setting in the Enabled Checks box. See section
11.3.2 Available Checks for a complete list of available checks.
You can turn on Heap Overflow/Underflow Detection to detect out of bounds heap access. See section
11.4.3 Writing Beyond An Allocated Area for more details.
Almost all users can leave the heap check interval at its default setting. It determines how often the mem-
ory debugging library will check the entire heap for consistency. This is a slow operation, so is normally
performed every 100 memory allocations. This figure can be changed manually – a higher setting (1000
or above) is recommended if your program allocates and deallocates memory very frequently (e.g. inside
a computation loop).
If your program runs particularly slowly with Memory Debugging enabled you may be able to get a
modest speed increase by disabling the Store backtraces for memory allocations option. This disables
stack back traces in the View Pointer Details and Current Memory Usage windows, support for custom
allocators and cumulative allocation totals.
It is possible to enable Memory Debugging for only selected MPI ranks by checking the Only enable for
these processes option and entering the ranks you want to it for.
Note: The Memory Debugging library will still be loaded into the other processes, but no errors will be
reported.
Click on OK to save these settings, or Cancel to undo your changes.
Note: Choosing the wrong library to preload or the wrong number of bits may prevent DDT from starting
your job, or may make memory debugging unreliable. You should check these settings if you experience
problems when memory debugging is enabled.
11.3.1
Static Linking
If your program is statically linked then you must explicitly link the memory debugging library with your
program in order to use the Memory Debugging feature in DDT.
To link with the memory debugging library you must add the appropriate flags from the table below at
the end of the link command, but before every occurrence of -lc (if present).
Note: if in doubt use the -ldmallocthcxx library.
Multi-thread
C++
Bits
Library
no
no
64
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/64
-ldmalloc
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
yes
no
64
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/64
ldmallocth
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
no
yes
64
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/64
-ldmallocxx
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
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yes
yes
64
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/64 -ldmallocthcxx -Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
no
no
32
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/32
-ldmalloc
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
yes
no
32
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/32
ldmallocth
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
no
yes
32
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/32
-ldmallocxx
-Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
yes
yes
32
-L/path/to/ddt/lib/32 -ldmallocthcxx -Wl,--
allow-multiple-definition
Note that -z muldefs is equivalent to -Wl,--allow-multiple-definition in the above. See
section C.6 Intel Compilers and section C.8 Portland Group Compilers for compiler-specific informa-
tion.
11.3.2
Available Checks
The following heap checks are available and may be enabled in the Enable Checks box:
Name
Description
basic
Detects invalid pointers passed to memory functions (malloc, free, ALLOCATE,
DEALLOCATE, etc.)
check-funcs
Check the arguments of addition functions (mostly string operations) for invalid point-
ers.
check-heap
Checks for heap corruption (e.g. due to writes to invalid memory addresses).
check-fence
Checks the end of an allocation has not been overwritten when it is freed.
alloc-blank
Initialises the bytes of new allocations with a known value.
free-blank
Overwrites the bytes of freed memory with a known value.
check-blank
Check to see if space that was blanked when a pointer was allocated or when it was
freed has been overwritten. Enables alloc-blank and free-blank.
realloc-copy
Always copy data to a new pointer when re-allocating a memory allocation (e.g. due
to realloc)
free-protect
Protects freed memory where possible (using hardware memory protection) so sub-
sequent read/writes cause a fatal error.
11.3.3
Changing Settings at Run Time
You can change most Memory Debugging settings while your program is running by selecting the Con-
trol → Memory Debugging Options menu item. In this way you can enable Memory De-
bugging with a minimal set of options when your program starts, set a breakpoint at a place you want to
investigate for memory errors, then turn on more options when the breakpoint is hit.
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11.4
Pointer Error Detection and Validity Checking
Once you have enabled memory debugging and started debugging, all calls to the allocation and deal-
location routines of heap memory will be intercepted and monitored. This allows both for automatic
monitoring for errors, and for user driven inspection of pointers.
11.4.1
Library Usage Errors
If the memory debugging library reports an error Allinea DDT will display a window similar to the one
shown below. This briefly reports the type of error detected and gives the option of continuing to play
the program, or pausing execution.
Figure 73: Memory Error Message
If you choose to pause the program then Allinea DDT will highlight the line of your code that was being
executed when the error was reported.
Often this is enough to debug simple memory errors, such as freeing or dereferencing an unallocated
variable, iterating past the end of an array and so on – as the local variables and variables on the current
line will provide insight into what is happening.
If the cause of the issue is still not clear, then it is possible to examine some of the pointers referenced to
see whether they're valid and which line they were allocated on, as we now explain.
11.4.2
View Pointer Details
Any of the variables or expressions in the Evaluate window can be right-clicked on to bring up a menu.
If memory debugging is enabled, View Pointer Details will be available. This will display the amount of
memory allocated to the pointer and which part of your code originally allocated that memory:
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Figure 74: Pointer details
Clicking on any of the stack frames will display the relevant section of your code, so that you can see
where the variable was allocated.
Note: Only a single stack frame will be displayed if the Store stack backtraces for memory allocations
option is disabled.
This feature can also be used to check the validity of heap allocated memory.
Note: Memory allocated on the heap refers to memory allocated by malloc, ALLOCATE, new and so
on. A pointer may also point to a local variable, in which case DDT will tell you it does not point to data
on the heap. This can be useful, since a common error is taking a pointer to a local variable that later
goes out of scope.
Figure 75: Invalid memory message
This is particularly useful for checking function arguments, and key variables when things seem to be go-
ing awry. Of course, just because memory is valid doesn't mean it is the same type as you were expecting,
or of the same size, or the same dimensions and so on.
Memory Type/Location
As well as invalid addresses, DDT can often tell you the type/location of the memory being pointed to.
The different types are listed below.
Note: DDT may only be able to identify certain memory types with higher levels of memory debugging
(see 11.3 Configuration for more information).
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• Null pointer.
• Valid heap allocation.
• Fence-post area before the beginning of an allocation.
• Fence-post area beyond the end of an allocation.
• Freed heap allocation.
• Fence-post area before the beginning of a freed allocation.
• Fence-post area beyond the end a freed allocation.
• A valid GPU heap allocation.
• An address on the stack.
• The program's code section (or a shared library).
• The program's data section (or a shared library).
• The program's bss section or Fortran COMMON block (or a shared library).
• The program's executable (or a shared library).
• A memory mapped file.
For more information on fence post checking, see 11.4.4 Fencepost Checking
11.4.3
Writing Beyond An Allocated Area
Use Heap Overflow / Underflow Detection option to detect read or writes beyond or before an allocated
block. Any attempts to read or write to the specified number of pages before or after the block will
cause a segmentation violation that stops your program. Add the guard pages after the block to detect
heap overflows, or before to detect heap underflows. The default value of 1 page will catch most heap
overflow errors but if this doesn’t work a good rule of thumb is to set the number of guard pages according
to the size of a row in your largest array. The exact size of a memory page depends on your operating
system but a typical size is 4Kb. So if a row of your largest array is 64Kb then set the number of pages
to 64/4 = 16.
11.4.4
Fencepost Checking
DDT will also perform 'Fence Post' checking whenever the Heap Debugging setting is not set to Fast.
In this mode, an extra portion of memory is allocated at the start and/or end of your allocated block, and a
pattern is written into this area. If you attempt to write beyond your data, say by a few elements, then this
will be noticed by DDT, however your program will not be stopped at the exact location at which your
program wrote beyond the allocated data – it will only stop at the next heap consistency check.
11.4.5
Suppressing an Error
If DDT stops at an error but you wish to ignore the error (for example, it may be in a third party library
you cannot fix) then you may check the Suppress memory errors from this line in future. This will open
the Suppress Memory Errors window. Here you may select which function you want to suppress errors
from.
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11.5
Current Memory Usage
Memory leaks can be a significant problem for software developers. If your application's memory usage
grows faster than expected or continues to grow through its execution then it is possible that memory is
being allocated which is not being returned when it is no longer required.
This type of problem is typically difficult to diagnose, and particularly so in a parallel environment, but
Allinea DDT is able to make this task simple.
At any point in your program you can go to View Current Memory Usage and DDT will then display the
currently allocated memory in your program for the currently selected group. For larger process groups,
the processes displayed will be the ones that are using the most memory across that process group.
Figure 76: Memory Usage Graphs
The pie chart gives an at-a-glance comparison of the total memory allocated to each process. This gives
an indication of the balance of memory allocations; any one process taking an unusually large amount of
memory should be easily identifiable here.
The stacked bar chart on the right is where the most interesting information starts. Each process is rep-
resented by a bar, and each bar broken down into blocks of colour that represent the total amount of
memory allocated by a particular function in your code. Say your program contains a loop that allocates
a hundred bytes that is never freed. That's not a lot of memory. But if that loop is executed ten million
times, you're looking at a gigabyte of memory being leaked! There are 6 blocks in total. The first 5
represent the 5 functions that allocated the most memory allocated, and the 6th (at the top) represents the
rest of the allocated memory, wherever it is from.
As you can see, large allocations (if your program is close to the end, or these grow, then they are severe
memory leaks) show up as large blocks of colour. Typically, if the memory leak does not make it into the
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top 5 allocations under any circumstances then it isn't that big a deal – although if you are still concerned
you can view the data in the Table View yourself.
If any block of colour interests you, click on it. This will display detailed information about the memory
allocations that make it up in the bottom-left pane. Scanning down this list gives you a good idea of
what size allocations were made, how many and where from. Clicking on any one of these will display
the 'Pointer Details' view described above, showing you exactly where that pointer was allocated from in
your code.
Note: Only a single stack frame will be displayed if the Store stack backtraces for memory allocations
option is disabled.
The Table View shows all the functions that allocated memory in your program alongside the number
of allocations ( Count ) and the total number of bytes allocated ( Size ). It also shows the total memory
allocated by each function's callees in the Cumulative Count and Cumulative Size columns.
For example: func1 calls func2 which calls malloc to allocate 50 bytes. DDT will report an alloca-
tion of 50 bytes against func2 in the Size column of the Current Memory Usage table. DDT will also
record a cumulative allocation of 50 bytes against both functions func1 and func2 in the Cumulative
Size column of the table.
Another valuable use of this feature is to play the program for a while, refresh the window, play it for a
bit longer, refresh the window and so on – if you pick the points at which to refresh (e.g. after units of
work are complete) you can watch as the memory load of the different processes in your job fluctuates
and will easily spot any areas that grow and grow – these are problematic leaks.
11.5.1
Detecting Leaks when using Custom Allocators/Memory Wrappers
Some compilers wrap memory allocations inside many other functions. In this case Allinea DDT may
find, for example, that all Fortran 90 allocations are inside the same routine. This can also happen if you
have written your own wrapper for memory allocation functions.
In these circumstances you will see one large block in the Current Memory Usage view. You can mark
such functions as Custom Allocators to exclude them from the bar chart and table by right-clicking on the
function and selecting the Add Custom Allocator menu item. Memory allocated by a custom allocator is
recorded against its caller instead.
For example, if myfunc calls mymalloc and mymalloc is marked as a custom allocator the allocation
will be recorded against myfunc instead. You can edit the list of custom allocators by clicking the “Edit
Custom Allocators...” button at the bottom of the window.
11.6
Memory Statistics
The Memory Statistics view (View Memory Statistics) shows a total of memory usage across the
processes in an application. The processes using the most memory are displayed, along with the mean
across all processes in the current group, which is useful for larger process counts.
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Figure 77: Memory Statistics
The contents and location of the memory allocations themselves are not repeated here; instead this win-
dow displays the total amount of memory allocated/freed since the program began in the left-hand pane.
This can help show if your application is unbalanced, if particular processes are allocating or failing to
free memory and so on. The right hand pane shows the total number of calls to allocate/free functions by
process. At the end of program execution you can usually expect the total number of calls per process
to be similar (depending on how your program divides up work), and memory allocation calls should
always be greater than deallocation calls - anything else indicates serious problems.
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12
DDT: Checkpointing
12.1
What Is Checkpointing?
A program's entire state (or a practical subset thereof) may be recorded to memory as a checkpoint.
The program may later be restored from the checkpoint and will resume execution from the recorded
state.
Sometimes you are not sure what information you need to diagnose a bug until it is too late to get it.
For example, a program may crash because a variable has a particular unexpected value. You want to
know where the variable was set to that value but it is too late to set a watch on it. However if you have
an earlier checkpoint of the program you can restore the checkpoint, set the watch, and then let it fail
again.
Checkpoints in DDT are stored in memory. They are valid for the life time of a session but are lost when
the session is ended.
12.2
How To Checkpoint
To checkpoint your program, click the Checkpoint button on the tool bar
. The first time you click the
button you will be asked to select a checkpoint provider. If no checkpoint providers support the current
MPI and debugger an error message will be displayed instead.
When the checkpoint has completed a new window will open displaying the name of the new check-
point.
12.3
Restoring A Checkpoint
To restore a checkpoint, click the Restore Checkpoint button on the tool bar
. A new window will
open with a list of available checkpoints. Select a checkpoint then click the Ok button.
The program state will be restored to the checkpoint. The Parallel Stack View, Locals View, etc. will all
be updated with the new program state.
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13
DDT: Using and Writing Plugins
Plugins are a quick and easy way to preload a library into your application and define some breakpoints
and tracepoints during its use. They consist of an XML file which instructs DDT what to do and where
to set breakpoints or tracepoints.
Examples are MPI correctness checking libraries, or you could also define a library that is preloaded with
your application that could perform your own monitoring of the application. It also enables a message to
be displayed to the user when breakpoints are hit, displaying, for example, an error message where the
message is provided by the library in a variable.
13.1
Supported Plugins
DDT supports plugins for two MPI correctness-checking libraries:
• Intel Message Checker, part of the Intel Trace Analyser and Collector (Commercial with free eval-
uation: http://software.intel.com/en-us/intel-trace-analyzer/) version 7.1
• Marmot (Open source: http://www.hlrs.de/organization/amt/projects/marmot), support expected
in version 2.2 and above.
13.2
Installing a Plugin
To install a plugin, locate the XML DDT plugin file provided by your application vendor and copy it
to:
{allinea-tools installation directory}/plugins/
It will then appear in DDT's list of available plugins on the DDT - Run dialog.
Each plugin takes the form of an XML file in this directory. These files are usually provided by third-
party vendors to enable their application to integrate with DDT. A plugin for the Intel Message Checker
(part of the Intel Trace Analyser and Collector) is included with the DDT distribution.
13.3
Using a Plugin
To activate a plugin in DDT, simply click on the checkbox next to it in the window, then run your appli-
cation. Plugins may automatically perform one or more of the following actions:
• Load a particular dynamic library into your program
• Pause your program and show a message when a certain event such as a warning or error occurs
• Start extra, optionally hidden MPI processes (see the Writing Plugins section for more details on
this ).
• Set tracepoints – which log the variables during an execution.
If DDT says it cannot load one of the plugins you have selected, check that the application is correctly
installed, and that the paths inside the XML plugin file match the installation path of the application.
Example Plugin: MPI History Library
DDT's plugin directory contains a small set of files that make a plugin to log MPI communication.
• Makefile – Builds the library and the configuration file for the plugin.
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• README.wrapper – Details the installation, usage and limitations
• wrapper-config – Used to create the plugin XML config file - used by DDT to preload the
library and set tracepoints which will log the correct variables.
• wrapper-source – Used to automatically generate the source code for the library which will
wrap the original MPI calls.
The plugin is designed to wrap around many of the core MPI functions and seamlessly intercept calls to
log information which is then displayed in DDT. It is targeted at MPI implementations which use dynamic
linking, as this can be supported without relinking the debugged application.
Static MPI implementations can be made to work also, but this is outside the scope of this version.
This package must be compiled before first use - in order to be compatible with your MPI version. It will
not appear in DDT's GUI until this is done.
To install - as a non-root user - in your local /.allinea/plugins directory.
make local
To install - as root in the DDT plugins directory
make
Once you have run the above, start DDT and to enable the plugin, click the Details... button to expand
the Plugins section of the Run window. Select History v1.0, and start your job as normal. DDT will
take care of preloading the library and setting default tracepoints.
This plugin records call counts, total sent byte counts, and the arguments used in MPI function calls.
Function calls and arguments are displayed (in blue) in the Input/Output panel.
The function counts are available -- in the form of a variable
MPIHistoryCount {function}
The sent bytes counters are accumulated for most functions - but specifically they are not added for the
vector operations such as MPI Gatherv. These count variables within the processes are available for
use within DDT - in components such as the cross-process comparison window, enabling a check that
- say - the count of MPI Barriers is consistent, or primitive MPI bytes sent profiling information to be
discovered.
The library does not record the received bytes - as most MPI receive calls in isolation only contain a
maximum number of bytes allowed, rather than bytes received. The MPI status is logged, the SOURCE
tag therein enables the sending process to be identified.
There is no per-communicator logging in this version.
This version is for demonstration purposes for the tracepoints and plugin features. It could generate
excessive logged information, or cause your application to run slowly if it is a heavy communicator.
This library can be easily extended – or its logging can be reduced by removing the tracepoints from
the generated history.xml file (stored in ALLINEA_TOOLS_PATH or
/.allinea/plugins)
– which would make execution considerably faster, but still retain the byte and function counts for the
MPI functions.
13.4
Writing a Plugin
Writing a plugin for DDT is easy. All that is needed is an XML plugin file that looks something like
this:
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<plugin name="Sample v1.0" description="A sample plugin that
demonstrates DDT's plugin interface.">
<preload name="samplelib1" />
<preload name="samplelib2" />
<environment name="SUPPRESS_LOG" value="1" />
<environment name="ANOTHER_VAR" value="some value" />
<breakpoint location="sample_log" action="log" message_variable
="message" />
<breakpoint location="sample_err" action="message_box"
message_variable="message" />
<extra_control_process hide="last" />
</plugin>
Only the surrounding plugin tag is required – all the other tags are entirely optional. A complete
description of each appears in the table below. If you are interested in providing a plugin for DDT as part
of your application bundle, we will be happy to provide you with any assistance you need getting up and
running. Contact support@allinea.com for more information.
13.5
Plugin Reference
Tag
Attribute
Description
plugin
name
The plugin's unique name. This should in-
clude the application/library the plugin is for,
and its version. This is shown in the DDT –
Run dialog.
plugin
description
A short snippet of text to describe the purpose
of the plugin/application to the user. This is
also shown in the DDT – Run dialog.
preload
name
Instructs DDT to preload a shared library of
this name into the user's application.
The
shared library must be locatable using LD_
LIBRARY_PATH, or the OS will not be able
to load it.
environment
name
Instructs DDT to set a particular environment
variable before running the user's application.
environment
value
The value that this environment variable
should be set to.
breakpoint
location
Instructs DDT to add a breakpoint at this lo-
cation in the code.
The location may be
in a preloaded shared library (see above).
Typically this will be a function name, or
a fully-qualified C++ namespace and class
name. C++ class members must include their
signature and be enclosed in single quotes,
e.g.
'MyNamespace::DebugServer::
breakpointOnError(char*)'
breakpoint
action
Only message box is supported in this re-
lease. Other settings will cause DDT to stop
at the breakpoint but take no action.
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breakpoint
message variable
A char* or const
char* variable that
contains a message to be shown to the user.
DDT will group identical messages from dif-
ferent processes together before displaying
them to the user in a message box.
extra control process
hide
Instructs DDT to start one more MPI process
than the user requested. The optional hide
attribute can be first or last, and will cause
DDT to hide the first or last process in
MPI_COMM_WORLD from the user. This pro-
cess will be allowed to execute whenever at
least one other MPI process is executing, and
messages or breakpoints (see above) occur-
ring in this process will appear to come from
all processes at once. This is only necessary
for tools such as Marmot that use an extra MPI
process to perform various runtime checks on
the rest of the MPI program.
tracepoint
location
See breakpoint location.
tracepoint
variables
A comma-separated list of variables to log on
every passing of the tracepoint location.
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14
DDT: CUDA GPU Debugging
MAP does not support CUDA in this release.
Allinea DDT is able to debug applications that use NVIDIA CUDA, with actual debugging of the code
running on the GPU, simultaneously whilst debugging the host CPU code.
Allinea supports a number of GPU compilers:
• NVCC – the NVIDIA compilers
• CAPS HMPP – on-device and host debugging support for breakpoints and viewing of some on-
device variables with CAPS 3.2 release.
• Cray OpenACC – full debugging support for on-device and host code debugging.
• PGI CUDA Fortran and the PGI Accelerator Model can be debugged but only running on the host
(CPU). Please see the C.8 Portland Group Compilers for further details.
The CUDA toolkits and their drivers for toolkits version 4.0 and above are supported by Allinea DDT.
14.1
Licensing
In order to debug CUDA programs with Allinea DDT, a CUDA-enabled licence key is required, which
is an additional option to default licences. If CUDA is not included with a licence, the CUDA options
will be greyed-out on the run dialog of DDT.
Whilst debugging a CUDA program, an additional process from your licence is used for each GPU. An
exception to this is that single process licences will still allow the debugging of a single GPU.
Please note that in order to serve a floating CUDA licence, you will need to use the licence server shipped
with DDT 2.6 or later.
14.2
Preparing to Debug GPU Code
In order to debug your GPU program, you may need to add additional compiler command line options to
enable GPU debugging.
For NVIDIA's nvcc compiler, kernels must be compiled with the “-g -G” flags. This enables generation
of information for debuggers in the kernels, and will also disable some optimisations that would hinder
debugging. To use memory debugging in DDT with CUDA 5.5 or 6.0 “--cudart shared” must also
be passed to nvcc.
For other compilers, please refer to 14.9 GPU Language Support of this guide and C Compiler Notes and
Known Issues and your vendor's own documentation.
Note: At this point OpenCL debugging of GPUs is not supported.
14.3
Launching the Application
To launch a CUDA job, tick the CUDA box on the run dialog before clicking run/submit. You may
also enable memory debugging for CUDA programs from the CUDA section, see section 11.2 CUDA
Memory Debugging for details.
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Attaching to running CUDA applications is not possible if the application has already initialized the
driver, for example having executed any kernel or called any functions from the CUDA library. For MPI
applications it is essential to place all CUDA initialization after the MPI_Init call.
14.4
Controlling GPU threads
Controlling GPU threads is integrated with the standard DDT controls – so that the usual play, pause, and
breakpoints are all applicable to GPU kernels, for example.
As GPUs have different execution models to CPUs, there are some behavioural differences that we now
detail.
14.4.1
Breakpoints
CUDA Breakpoints can be set in the same manner as other breakpoints in DDT (See section 6.7 Setting
Breakpoints).
Breakpoints affect all GPU threads, and cause the application to stop whenever a thread reaches the
breakpoint. Where kernels have similar workload across blocks and grids, then threads will tend to reach
the breakpoint together and the kernel will pause once per set of blocks that are scheduled (ie. set of
threads that fit on the GPU at any one time). Where kernels have divergent distributions of work across
threads, then timing may be such that threads within a running kernel will hit a breakpoint and pause the
kernel – and after subsequently continuining, more threads within the currently scheduled set of blocks
will hit the breakpoint and pause the application again.
In order to apply breakpoints to individual blocks, warps or threads, conditional breakpoints can be used
– for example using the built-in variables threadIdx.x (and threadIdx.y or threadIdx.z as appropriate) for
thread indexes and setting the condition appropriately.
Where a kernel pauses at a breakpoint, the currently selected GPU thread will be changed if the previously
selected thread is no longer “alive”.
14.4.2
Stepping
The GPU execution model is noticeably different from that of the host CPU. In the context of stepping
operations – ie. step in, step over or step out – there are critical differences to note.
The smallest execution unit on a GPU is a warp – which on current NVIDIA GPUs is 32 threads. Step
operations can operate on warps but nothing smaller.
Allinea DDT also makes it possible to step whole blocks, whole kernels or whole devices. The stepping
mode is selected using the drop down list in the CUDA Thread Selector.
Figure 78: Selection of GPU Stepping Mode
Note: GPU execution under the control of a debugger is not as fast as running without a debugger. When
stepping blocks and kernels these are sequentialized into warps and hence stepping of units larger than a
warp may be slow. It is not unusual for a step operation to take 60 seconds on a large kernel, particularly
on newer devices where a step could involve stepping over a function call.
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It is not currently possible to “step over” or “step out” of inlined GPU functions.
Note: GPU functions are often inlined by the compiler. This can be avoided (dependent on hardware) by
specifying the
noinline
keyword in your function declaration, and by compiling your code for a
later GPU profile. e.g. by adding -arch=sm 20 to your compile line.
14.4.3
Running and Pausing
Clicking the “Play/Continue” button in DDT will run all GPU threads. It is not possible to run individual
blocks, warps or threads.
The pause button will pause a running kernel, although it should be noted that the pause operation is not
as quick for GPUs as for regular CPUs.
14.5
Examining GPU Threads and Data
Much of the user interface when working with GPUs is unchanged from regular MPI or multithreaded
debugging. However, there are a number of enhancements and additional features that have been added
to help understand the state of GPU applications.
These changes are summarised in this section.
14.5.1
Selecting GPU Threads
Figure 79: GPU Thread Selector
The Thread Selector allows you to select your current GPU thread. The current thread is used for the
variable evaluation windows in DDT, along with the various GPU stepping operations.
The first entries represent the block index, and the subsequent entries represent the 3D thread index inside
that block.
Changing the current thread will update the local variables, the evaluations, and the current line displays
and source code displays to reflect the change.
The thread selector is also updated to display the current GPU thread if it changes as a result of any other
operation – for example if:
• The user changes threads by selecting an item in the Parallel Stack View
• A memory error is detected and is attributed to a particular thread
• The kernel has progressed, and the previously selected thread is no longer present in the device
The GPU Thread Selector also displays the dimensions of the grid and blocks in your program.
It is only possible to inspect/control threads in the set of blocks that are actually loaded in to the GPU. If
you try to select a thread that is not currently loaded, a message will be displayed.
Note: The thread selector is only displayed when there is a GPU kernel active.
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14.5.2
Viewing GPU Thread Locations
The Parallel Stack View has been updated to display the location and number of GPU threads.
Figure 80: CUDA threads in the parallel stack view
Clicking an item in the Parallel Stack View will select the appropriate GPU thread – updating the variable
display components accordingly and moving the source code viewer to the appropriate location.
Hovering over an item in the Parallel Stack view will also allow you to see which individual GPU thread
ranges are at a location, as well as the size of each range.
14.5.3
Understanding Kernel Progress
Given a simple kernel that is to calculate an output value for each index in an array, it is not easy to check
whether the value at position x in an array has been calculated, or whether the calculating thread has yet
to be scheduled.
This contrasts sharply with scalar programming, where if the counter of a (up-)loop exceeds x then the
value of index x can be taken as being the final value. If it is difficult to decide whether array data is fresh
or stale, then clearly this will be a major issue during debugging.
Allinea DDT includes a component that makes this easy – the Kernel Progress display, which will appear
at the bottom of the user interface by default when a kernel is in progress.
Figure 81: Kernel Progress Display
This view identifies the kernels that are in progress – with the number of kernels identified and grouped
by different kernel identifiers (ie. kernel name) across processes – and using a coloured progress bar
to identify which GPU threads are in progress. The progress bar is a projection onto a straight line of
the (potentially) 6-dimensional GPU block and thread indexing system and is tailored to the sizes of the
kernels operating in the application.
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By clicking within the colour highlighted sections of this progress bar, a GPU thread will be selected
that matches the click location as closely as possible. Selected GPU threads are coloured blue. For
deselected GPU threads, the ones that are scheduled are coloured green whereas the unscheduled ones
are white.
14.5.4
Source Code Viewer
The source code viewer allows you to visualise the program flow through your source code by highlight-
ing lines in the current stack trace. When debugging GPU kernels, it will colour highlight lines with
GPU threads present and display the GPU threads in a similar manner to that of regular CPU threads
and processes. Hovering over a highlighted line in the code viewer will display a summary of the GPU
threads on that line.
14.6
GPU Devices Information
One of the challenges of GPU programming is in discovering device parameters, such as the number of
registers or the device type, and whether a device is present.
In order to assist in this, Allinea DDT includes a GPU Devices display. This display examines the GPUs
that are present and in use across an application, and groups the information together scalably for multi-
process systems.
Figure 82: GPU Devices
Note: For CUDA 4.0, devices are only listed after initialization.
14.7
Attaching to running GPU applications
Attaching to a running GPU application and then debugging the GPU threads is only supported for
• CUDA 5 and above versions of the toolkit,
• Fermi class cards and their successors. This includes Tesla C2050/2070, K10, and K20.
To attach to a running job, please see the Section 4.8 Attaching To Running Programs – and select the
Debug CUDA button on the attach window.
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14.8
Known Issues / Limitations
14.8.1
Debugging Multiple GPU processes (CUDA 4.0 and below)
• With CUDA 4.0, Allinea DDT can only debug a single GPU process per host. When trying to
debug multiple processes with CUDA support enabled, DDT will disable GPU debugging for all
but one process.
In order to debug multiple processes with GPU support you must configure your job launch mech-
anism to launch each process on a separate host.
• When debugging multiple GPU processes on the same machine, pausing the process with GPU
debugging enabled may also pause kernels launched by other processes.
14.8.2
Using Multiple GPU processes (CUDA 4.1 and above)
CUDA 4.1 allows debugging of multiple CUDA processes on the same node. However, each process
will still attempt to reserve all of the available GPUs for debugging.
This works for the case where a single process debugs all GPUs on a node, but not for multiple processes
debugging a single GPU.
A temporary workaround when using Open MPI is to export the following environment variable before
starting DDT:
DDT_CUDA_DEVICE_VAR=OMPI_COMM_WORLD_LOCAL_RANK
This will assign a single device (based on local rank) to each process. In addition:
• You must have Open MPI (Compatibility) selected in the File Options (DDT Preferences on
Mac OS X) . (Not Open MPI).
• The device selected for each process will be the only device visible when enumerating GPUs. This
cause manual GPU selection code to stop working (due to changing device IDs, etc).
14.8.3
Thread control
The focus on thread feature in DDT isn't supported, as it can lock up the GPU. This means that it is not
currently possible to control multiple GPUs in the same process individually.
14.8.4
General
• DDT supports versions 4.0 onwards of the NVIDIA CUDA toolkit. In all cases, the most recent
CUDA toolkit and driver versions is recommended.
• X11 cannot be running on any GPU used for debugging. (Any GPU running X11 will be excluded
from device enumeration.)
• You must compile with -g -G to enable GPU debugging – otherwise your program will run
through the contents of kernels without stopping.
• Debugging 32‐bit CUDA code on a 64‐bit host system is not supported.
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• It is not yet possible to spot unsuccessful kernel launches or failures. An error code is provided by
getCudaLastError() in the SDK which you can call in your code to detect this. Currently
the debugger cannot check this without resetting it, which is not desirable behaviour.
• Device memory allocated via cudaMalloc() is not visible outside of the kernel function.
• Not all illegal program behaviour can be caught in the debugger - e.g. divide‐by‐zero.
• Device allocations larger than 100 MB on Tesla GPUs, and larger than 32 MB on Fermi GPUs,
may not be accessible.
• Breakpoints in divergent code may not behave as expected.
• Debugging applications with multiple CUDA contexts running on the same GPU is not supported.
• If CUDA environment variable CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES <index> is used to target a partic-
ular GPU, then make sure no X server is running on any of the GPUs. (Also note that any GPU
running X will be excluded from enumeration, with may affect the device Ids).
• The CUDA 5 driver requires that applications be debugged in a CUDA 5 mode – if your system is
running the CUDA 5 driver and using the CUDA 4.x toolkit, you should force DDT to use CUDA
5 mode by setting DDT_FORCE_CUDA_VERSION=5 – or consider upgrading to CUDA 5 toolkit.
• If memory debugging and CUDA support are enabled in DDT then only threaded memory preloads
are available.
14.8.5
Pre sm 20 GPUs
For GPUs that have SM type less than sm 20 (or when code is compiled targeting SM type less than
sm 20), the following issues may apply.
• GPU code targeting less than SM type sm 20 will inline all function calls. This can lead to be-
haviour such as not being able to step over/out of subroutines.
• Debugging applications using textures is not supported on GPUs with SM type less than sm 20.
• If you are debugging code in device functions that get called by multiple kernels, then setting a
breakpoint in the device function will insert the breakpoint in only one of the kernels.
14.8.6
Workaround for unsupported gcc versions with nvcc
CUDA toolkit 4.0 doesn't support gcc/g++ versions onwards 4.4. An example of how to workaround this
(for Ubuntu systems) is provided below:
Install an older version of gcc/g++. e.g.:
sudo apt-get install g++-4.4
Create a new bin directory and symlink the compilers in to it:
sudo mkdir /usr/local/gcc-44
sudo ln /usr/bin/gcc-4.4 /usr/local/gcc-44/gcc
sudo ln /usr/bin/g++-4.4 /usr/local/gcc-44/g++
Tell nvcc to use the new bin directory by editing the nvcc.profile file in the same directory as
nvcc and appending the following line:
compiler-bindir = /usr/local/gcc-44
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nvcc will now use the older supported compiler version.
14.8.7
Debugging Multiple GPU processes on Cray limitations
It is not possible to debug multiple CUDA processes on a single node on a Cray machine, you must run
with 1 process per node.
14.9
GPU Language Support
In addition to the native nvcc compiler, a number of other compilers are supported.
At this point in time, debugging of OpenCL is not supported on the device.
14.9.1
CAPS HMPP
CAPS HMPP 3.2 code can be debugged in both the host and the GPU. The Stop on kernel launch feature
can be used to identify the launch points of HMPP codelets, and breakpoints inside CAPS HMPP codelets
can also be directly inserted.
The required compilation options and environment variables to the compiler are:
hmpp g -f -k ifort basic.f90 -o basic
Stepping inside a GPU codelet or pausing is supported with CAPS HMPP 3.0 and above.
The host code can be debugged as normal, subject to providing -g flags to the compilers as normal.
DDT will syntax highlight HMPP pragmas detected in the source.
F90 arrays and expressions are correctly displayed by DDT, including multi-dimensional arrays and arrays
with (eg.) negative lower bounds.
Known issue: Local loop index variables may be incorrect, depending on the loop structure – notably
nested loops may be flattened to a single loop and the mapping to a code's original index variables is not
currently available.
14.9.2
Cray OpenACC
Cray OpenMP Accelerator Extensions are fully supported by Allinea DDT. Code pragmas are highlighted,
most variables are visible within the device, and stepping and breakpoints in the GPU code is supported.
The compiler flag -g is required for enabling device (GPU-based) debugging – -O0 should not be used,
as this disables using of the device and runs the accelerated regions on the CPU.
Known issue: Pointers in accelerator code cannot be dereferenced in CCE 8.0.
Known issue: Memory consumption in debugging mode can be considerably higher than regular mode,
if issues with memory exhaustion arise, consider using the environment variable CRAY_ACC_MALLOC_
HEAPSIZE to set total heap size (bytes) used on the device, which can make more memory available to
the application.
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14.9.3
PGI Accelerators and CUDA Fortran
PGI Accelerator applications can be debugged when running on the host processor. To debug accelerator
code it is recommended to target execution on the host process only – with the -ta=host compiler
flag.
PGI CUDA Fortran can be debugged using Allinea DDT, by adding the -Mcuda=emu flag to the com-
piler. In this case, the CUDA will also run on the host CPU, and will use as many threads as there are
host cores, allowing many thread issues to be detected.
Known issue: debugging inside the GPU is not supported – for both models, debugging is perfomed on
CPU versions of the GPU code.
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15
DDT: Offline Debugging
Offline debugging is a mode of running Allinea DDT in which an application is run, under the control of
the debugger, but without user intervention and without a user interface.
There are many situations where running under this scenario will be useful, for example when access to a
machine is not immediately available and may not be available during the working day. The application
can run with features such as tracepoints and memory debugging enabled, and will produce a report at
the end of the execution.
15.1
Using Offline Debugging
To launch DDT in this mode, the -offline argument and a filename is specified. A filename with a
.html extension will cause a HTML version of the output to be produced, in other cases a plain text
report is generated.
ddt -offline myjob.html -n 4 myapplication arg1 arg2
or
ddt -offline myjob.txt -n 4 myapplication arg1 arg2
Additional arguments can be used to set breakpoints (at which the stack of the stopping processes will be
recorded before they are continued), or to set tracepoints at which variable values will be recorded.
Settings from your current DDT configuration file will be taken, unless over-ridden on the command
line.
Command line options that are of the most significance for this mode of running are:
• -ddtsession sessionfile - run in offline mode using settings saved using the Save Session
option from DDT's File menu.
• -n nnn - run with nnn processes
• -memory enable memory debugging
• -trace-at LOCATION[,N:M:P],VAR1,VAR2,... - set a tracepoint at location, begin-
ning recording after the N'th visit of each process to the location, and recording every M'th subse-
quent pass until it has been triggered P times. Record the value of variable VAR1, VAR2.
Example:
main.c:22,-:2:-,x
will record x every 2nd passage of line 22.
• -break-at LOCATION[,N:M:P] - set a breakpoint at LOCATION (either file:line or
function), optionally starting after the N'th pass, triggering every M passes and stopping after it
has been triggered P times.
• The stack traces of pausing processes will be recorded, before the processes are then made to
continue, and will contain the variables of one of the processes in the set of processes that have
paused.
Examples:
-break-at main
-break-at main.c:22
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The application will run to completion, or to the end of the job.
When errors occur, for example an application crash, the stack back trace of crashing processes will
be recorded to the offline output file. In offline mode, DDT will always act as if the user had clicked
Continue if the continue option was available in an equivalent “online” debugging session.
15.2
Offline Report Output (HTML)
The output file is broken into three sections, Messages, Tracepoints, and Output. At the end of a job,
DDT stitches together the three sections of the log output (tracepoint data, error messages, and program
output) into one file – if DDT's process is terminated abruptly, for example by the job scheduler, then
these separate files will remain and the final single html report may not be created.
Figure 83: Offline Mode HTML output
Timestamps are recorded with the contents in the offline log, and even though the file is neatly organized
into three sections, it remains possible to identify ordering of events from the time stamp.
The Messages section contains
• Error messages – for example if DDT's Memory Debugging detects an error then the message and
the stack trace at the time of the error will be recorded from each offending processes. Where
multiple processes error within a short interval, one messsage is generated with the parallel stack
view including the affected processes.
• Recorded breakpoints – the stack traces, local variables and stack arguments of a pausing process.
Where multiple processes pause within a short interval, then variables across the pausing processes
will be compared and a spark line drawn, and the stacks displayed will be the merged parallel stack
output from the pausing processes.
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The Tracepoints section contains the output from tracepoints, similar to that shown in the tracepoints
window in an online debugging session – including spark lines displaying the variable distribution.
Output from the application will be written to the Output section. For most MPIs this will not be identi-
fiable to a particular process, but on those MPIs that do support it, DDT will report which processes have
generated the output.
Identical output from the Output and Tracepoints section will, if received in close proximity and order,
be merged in the output, where this is possible.
15.3
Offline Report Output (Plain Text)
Unlike the offline report in HTML mode, the plain text mode does not separate the tracepoint, breakpoint
and application output into separate sections.
Lines in the offline plain text report are identified as messages, standard output, error output, and trace-
points, as detailed in the Offline Report Output (HTML) section previously.
For example, a simple report could look like:
message (0-3): Process stopped at breakpoint in main (hello.c:97).
message (0-3): Stacks
message (0-3): Processes Function
message (0-3): 0-3
main (hello.c:97)
message (0-3): Stack for process 0
message (0-3): #0 main (argc=1, argv=0x7fffffffd378, \
environ=0x7fffffffd388) at /home/ddt/examples/hello.c:97
message (0-3): Local variables for process 0 \
(ranges shown for 0-3)
message (0-3): argc: 1 argv: 0x7fffffffd378 beingWatched: 0 \
dest: 7 environ: 0x7fffffffd388 i: 0 message: ",!\312\t" \
my_r ank: 0 (0-3) p: 4 source: 0 status: t2: 0x7ffff7ff7fc0 \
tables: tag: 50 test: x: 10000 y: 12
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16
DDT: Using DDT with the VisIt Visualization Tool
VisIt (http://wci.llnl.gov/codes/visit/) provides large-scale distributed visualization of complex data struc-
tures, but typically requires program instrumentation to achieve online visualization. DDT may function
as a VisIt data source, providing basic online visualization capabilities during a debugging session without
the need for program instrumentation or recompilation.
16.1
Support for VisIt
Please note: We can't provide support for building, setting up or general use of VisIt. Please ensure
that VisIt works with one of the example simulation clients before proceeding. VisIt support is available
from:
• The visit-users@ornl.gov mailing list (http://elist.ornl.gov/mailman/listinfo/visit-users)
• The VisIt user community web site (http://visitusers.org)
16.2
Patching and Building VisIt
Versions of VisIt prior to 2.6 must be patched to work with DDT, VisIt versions 2.6 onwards must be
built from source with the cmake VISIT_DDT option enabled. To use the VisIt Picks feature (see 16.8
Focusing on a Domain & VisIt Picks) you must be using VisIt >= 2.6, have applied the appropriate patch
and have compiled VisIt with VISIT_DDT enabled.
VisIt patch tarballs can be found in the visit-patches subdirectory of your DDT installation. Extract the
tarball into your VisIt source directory (e.g. visit2.6.2/src ). If you have the program quilt in-
stalled then run quilt in that directory repeatedly until you get the message “File series fully
applied”. If quilt is not available you can apply the patches using patch with the following com-
mand:
ls patches/*.patch | xargs -n 1 cat | patch -p 0
16.3
Compatibility
Supported platforms: Linux only
Supported MPIs: Open MPI, MPICH 2 and Cray MPT.
Remote Launch is not supported.
Only dynamically linked executables are supported.
16.4
Enabling VisIt Support in DDT
VisIt support is configured on the File Options VisIt page of the DDT options window:
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Figure 84: VisIt Options Page
1. Tick the Allow the use of VisIt with DDT box.
2. Enter the path to the visit command in the VisIt Launch Command box, e.g. /opt/software/
visit/2.6.1/bin/visit.
3. Tick the Enable visualization breakpoints (preloads ddtsim...) option to enable DDT to work with
programs that haven't been instrumented for use with VisIt.
4. Click Ok.
Hint: You can specify where the VisIt windows will be placed by adding geometry statements to the
custom arguments line. The VisIt GUI is placed with -geometry argument, the viewer where your
visualizations are drawn placed by -viewer geometry. In both cases the geometry statements follow
the form [width]x[height]+[x-offset]+[y-offset]. For example, the following positions
the VisIt GUI and viewer to the right of the screen (depending on the size of your screen):
-geometry 150x800+1200+0 -viewer_geometry 500x500+700+250
Note: VisIt will apply the effects of the -small argument to after -viewer geometry is applied, re-
sulting in a viewer smaller than what you requested. We recommend you do not use the -small argument to
VisIt if you are specifying window dimensions and locations manually with -viewer geometry.
16.5
Setting Visualization Points (Vispoints)
A vispoint is a special breakpoint in DDT that, when hit, transfers control to VisIt to create a visual
representation of an a 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional array.
To create a vispoint:
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Figure 85: Add/edit vispoint window
1. Right-click on the line where you want to set it and select Add Vispoint from the menu.
2. If the mouse cursor is over an identifier representing an array, the vispoint may be pre-configured
with it. If not, you have to enter the array variable (e.g. tables) manually followed by either (for
C/C++) or ( (for Fortran). DDT will try to auto-complete this expression (dimensions with bounds).
If this is not possible one has to manually add [$i][$j]... (C/C++) or ($i, $j,...) (Fortran) to
the expression and set the bounds. See section 7.15.1 Array Expression for more details.
3. Verify the arrays and processes will be arranged as you expect in VisIt by looking at the preview
diagrams beneath the array expression configuration controls.
4. You can visualize additional arrays at this vispoint by clicking the + tab and entering another array
expression.
5. Click Ok.
You can change the location and triggering conditions by switching to the Vispoint tab. Normal breakpoint
constraints, such as Trigger every n-th pass may also be used in conjunction with Vispoints.
Note: Every time a vispoint is hit, it must be hit by all processes before either VisIt or DDT can continue.
Position your vispoints carefully!
Note: DDT currently only supports one vispoint at a time. Changing a vispoint currently being displayed
in VisIt is not recommended.
A vispoint can only visualize an array that is a continuous block in memory. C/C++ multi-dimensional
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arrays on the heap (created with malloc, calloc or new) are arrays of pointers to arrays and cannot be
visualized. If you have a one-dimensional C-style array (possibly allocated on the heap) you can visualise
it in multiple dimensions using an array expression of the form:
myarray[$k*WIDTH*HEIGHT+$j*WIDTH+$i]
where WIDTH and HEIGHT are integers defining the dimensions of the 3D project to visualize (0 < $i
<= WIDTH and 0 < $j >= HEIGHT). Note that when using a rectilinear mesh the ordering of the $i,
$j, and $k terms in the array expression determines which dimension is mapped to the x, y and z axes in
VisIt. For rectilinear meshes the dimension where adjacent cells are in adjacent memory locations ($i in
the above array expression) must be mapped to the X-axis, and must therefore be the right-most term in
a C-style code array expression.
16.6
Using Vispoints in DDT
Once you have added one or more vispoints to your program you can play it and when your program
stops control will be transferred to VisIt.
1. Click Play to run your program as usual.
2. When a vispoint is hit the Vispoint window will appear:
Figure 86: Vispoint window
1. Click the Launch VisIt button to start VisIt.
2. Wait for VisIt to load and connect to the simulation. The Add button in the Plots section of the
VisIt GUI will light up when it's ready.
3. If Automatically create Pseudocolour plots is enabled (see 24.5.5) VisIt will automatically plot the
arrays that were specified for the vispoint that was hit, each array in a different viewer window
(whilst this is being done a VisIt CLI window will briefly appear).
You can also manually add your plots in VisIt as normal. A pseudocolor plot is recommended, there
will be a dataset with the same name as the array variable to be visualized. DDT makes available
a mesh called ddtmesh which contains the data from the array selected in DDT, you can see how
the data from each process is arranged on this mesh by using a Subset plot of Domains.
16.7
Returning to DDT
Either:
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1. Click Request control from VisIt in the DDT Vispoint window; OR
2. Click the Release to DDT
icon in the VisIt viewer window; OR
3. Stop the simulation and exit VisIt - the simulation will automatically be released back to DDT.
Note: DDT cannot regain control of simulation without an instruction from VisIt.
16.8
Focusing on a Domain & VisIt Picks
You may change the currently selected process in DDT by picking a zone or node directly from a VisIt
plot.
Either:
1. Switch to the DDT Pick
tool and click on a zone / node. The process that supplied the data
for the selected zone / node will be selected in DDT; OR
2. Use the Zone Pick or Node Pick tool. From the pick window click Focus In DDT. This will switch
to the process that supplied the data for the picked zone / node.
DDT will change its selected process and the status bar text will show which zone DDT was switched
to. See section 16.7 Returning to DDT for how to get back to DDT and actually do something on this
process.
Note: DDT will assume that the VisIt domain corresponds to the MPI rank of the process running that
domain.
In VisIt 2.4.2, 2.5.0 and unpatched-2.6.x DDT will change its selected process and the status bar text will
show which zone DDT was switched to; when using a patched version of VisIt 2.6.1 (see section 16.2
Patching and Building VisIt) data about the picked zone or node will be added to the VisIt Picks table –
wait for this data to appear before making another pick in VisIt. See section 16.7 Returning to DDT for
how to get back to DDT and actually do something on this process/data.
Figure 87: VisIt Pick Window
The VisIt Picks table displays information about the process and array index that supplied the data for the
picked zone/node. This includes the process, the expression used to access the particular array element,
the memory address of that array element and the value of that element as it was known to VisIt. You
can set a personal reminder to identify a pick by double-clicking in the Note column. Clicking on a line
in the table will focus DDT on the corresponding process, and you can create or remove a watchpoint on
the relevant memory address by toggling the checkbox.
Note: There is a limit to the number of watchpoints that can be enabled at the same time.
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If you have enabled memory debugging (See section 11.1 Enabling Memory Debugging) you can get
information concerning about the memory allocation the picked cell was a part of by right-clicking on
an entry in the VisIt Picks table and selecting View pointer details (See section 11.4.2 View Pointer De-
tails).
You can drag-drop a row of the VisIt Picks table into the Evaluate Window to see the current value
for relevant array index (See section 7.4 Arbitrary Expressions And Global Variables). Remember the
Evaluate Window will show the value for the currently selected process – the display will change as you
switch focus to other processes.
16.9
Using DDT with a pre-instrumented program
Although DDT does not require your program to be instrumented for use with VisIt, DDT also supports
existing programs that are already instrumented.
1. Debug your program with DDT using whatever arguments are required for your program to stop
and connect to VisIt.
2. Launch VisIt, either as a separate instruction or with the Launch VisIt icon on the DDT toolbar.
3. Open your program's .sim file in VisIt from the normal place
(by default ~/.visit/simulations).
4. If launching VisIt from outside DDT, click File Connect to DDT from within VisIt.
Note: This is only necessary when launching VisIt yourself, when DDT launches VisIt it automati-
cally connects.
5. Focus on a domain at any time (See section 16.8 Focusing on a Domain & VisIt Picks ). Note that
VisIt will be frozen when your simulation is paused in DDT. There will be no Vispoint window -
just use VisIt whilst your simulation is running.
Note: DDT will assume that the VisIt domain corresponds to the MPI rank of the process running that
domain.
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17
MAP: Starting
When compiling the program that you wish to profile, you must add the debug flag to your compile
command. For the most compilers this is -g. You can use all optimisations that are compatible with the
-g option. If your program is already compiled without debug information you will need to make the
files that you are interested in again.
To start MAP simply type one of the following into a shell window:
map
map program_name
map program_name arguments
Note: You should not attempt to pipe input directly to MAP – for information about how to achieve the
effect of sending input to your program, please read section 8 DDT: Program Input And Output.
Once started it will display the Welcome Page:
Figure 88: MAP Welcome Page
The Welcome Page allows you to choose what kind of profiling you want to do. You can:
• Profile a program
• Load a Profile from a previous run
17.1
Preparing a Program for Profiling
In most cases if your program is already compiled with debugging symbols then you do not need to
recompile your program to use it with MAP although in some cases it may need to be relinked – this is
explained in section 17.1.3 Linking below.
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17.1.1
Debugging Symbols
Your program must be compiled with debugging symbols. For most compilers passing the -g option to
the compiler is sufficient, e.g.
mpicc hello.c -o hello -g
Cray Compiler
For the Cray compiler we recommend using the -G2 option with MAP.
17.1.2
.eh-frame-hdr section
For statically-linked programs you may need to compile with extra flags to ensure the executable still has
all the information MAP needs to record the call path while profiling it and gather the data needed for the
Parallel Stack View. For the GNU linker this means adding --Wl,--eh-frame-hdr to the compile
line or just --eh-frame-hdr to the link line. e.g.:
mpicc hello.c -o hello -g -Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
17.1.3
Linking
To collect data from your program, MAP provides two small libraries - map-sampler and map-
sampler-pmpi. These must be linked with your program. On most systems MAP can do this au-
tomatically without any action by you. This is done via the system's LD_PRELOAD mechanism, which
allows us to place an extra library into your program when starting it.
This automatic linking when starting your program only works if your program is dynamically-linked.
Programs may be dynamically-linked or statically-linked, and for MPI programs this is normally deter-
mined by your MPI library. Most MPI libraries are configured with --enable-dynamic by default,
and mpicc/mpif90 produce dynamically-linked executables that MAP can automatically collect data
from.
If MAP warns you that you have a statically-linked MPI executable, this often means your MPI library
was not configured with --enable-dynamic. You now have three options:
1. Try compiling and linking your code dynamically. On most platforms this allows MAP to use
the LD_PRELOAD mechanism to automatically insert its libraries into your application at runtime.
This is not currently supported on Cray systems; you will need to use one of the following two
options instead.
2. Link MAP's map-sampler and map-sampler-pmpi libraries with your program at link time
manually. See 17.1.4 Static Linking and 17.1.5 Static Linking on Cray X-Series Systems.
3. Finally, it may be that your system supports dynamic linking but you have a statically-linked MPI.
You can try to recompile the MPI implementation with --enable-dynamic, or find a dynam-
ically version on your system, then recompile your program using that version. This will produce
a dynamically-linked program that MAP can automatically collect data from.
17.1.4
Static Linking
If you compile your program statically (i.e. your MPI uses a static library or you pass the -static
option to the compiler) then you must explicitly link your program with the MAP sampler and MPI
wrapper libraries.
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Compiling the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
First you must compile the MAP MPI wrapper library for your system using the make-map-static-
libraries command:
user@login:˜/myprogram$ make-map-static-libraries
Created the MAP libraries in /users/ddt/allinea
libmap-sampler.a
libmap-sampler-pmpi.a
To instrument a program, add these compiler options:
compilation : -g (and -O3 etc.)
linking : -L/users/ddt/allinea -lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh \
-Wl,--whole-archive -lpthread
-Wl,--no-whole-archive \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
Linking with the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
Then when linking your program you must add the path to the MAP libraries (-L/path/to/map-libraries),
and the libraries themselves (-lmap-sampler-pmpi, -lmap-sampler).
The MAP MPI wrapper library (-lmap-sampler-pmpi) must go:
1. After your program's object (.o) files.
2. After your program's own static libraries (e.g. -lmylibrary).
3. After the path to the MAP libraries (-L/path/to/map-libraries).
4. Before the MPI's Fortran wrapper library (e.g. -lmpichf) (if any).
5. Before the MPI's implementation library (usually -lmpi).
6. Before the MAP sampler library (-lmap-sampler).
The MAP sampler library (-lmap-sampler) must go:
1. After the MAP MPI wrapper library.
2. After your program's object (.o) files.
3. After your program's own static libraries (e.g. -lmylibrary).
4. After -Wl,--undefined,allinea init sampler now.
5. After the path to the MAP libraries (-L/path/to/map-libraries).
6. Before -lstdc++, -lgcc eh, -lrt, -lpthread and -lc.
Example:
mpicc hello.c -o hello -g -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh \
-Wl,--whole-archive -lpthread \
-Wl,--no-whole-archive \
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-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
mpif90 hello.f90 -o hello -g -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh
-Wl,--whole-archive -lpthread \
-Wl,--no-whole-archive \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
MVAPICH 1
You must add -lmpichf after -lmap-sampler-pmpi (MVAPICH must be compiled with Fortran
support).
If you get a linker error about multiple definitions of mpi init , you need to specify additional linker
flags:
-Wl,--allow-multiple-definition
17.1.5
Static Linking on Cray X-Series Systems
Compiling the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
On Cray X-Series systems use the make-map-static-cray-libraries instead:
Created the MAP libraries in /users/ddt/allinea:
libmap-sampler.a
libmap-sampler-pmpi.a
To instrument a program, add these compiler options:
compilation : -g (or '-G2' for native Cray Fortran)
(and -O3 etc.)
linking : -L/users/ddt/allinea -lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh \
-Wl,--whole-archive -lpthread \
-Wl,--no-whole-archive \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
Linking with the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
cc hello.c -o hello -g -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
ftn hello.f90 -o hello -g -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi \
-Wl,--undefined,allinea_init_sampler_now \
-lmap-sampler -lstdc++ -lgcc_eh \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
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17.1.6
Manual Dynamic Linking on Cray X-Series systems
Compiling the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
On Cray X-Series systems use the make-map-shared-cray-libraries command:
Created the MAP libraries in /users/ddt/allinea:
libmap-sampler.so
(and .so.1, .so.1.0, .so.1.0.0)
libmap-sampler-pmpi.so
(and .so.1, .so.1.0, .so.1.0.0)
To instrument a program, add these compiler options:
compilation : -g (or '-G2' for native Cray Fortran) (and -O3
etc.)
linking : -dynamic -L/users/ddt/allinea lmap-sampler-pmpi -
lmap-sampler -Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
Note: These libraries must be on an NFS/Lustre/GPFS partition,
just like your program.
Before running aprun (interactively or from a queue), set LD\
_LIBRARY\_PATH:
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/users/ddt/allinea:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
aprun
...
Linking with the MAP MPI Wrapper Library
cc hello.c -o hello -g -dynamic -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi -lmap-sampler \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
ftn hello.f90 -o hello -dynamic -g -L/users/ddt/allinea \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi -lmap-sampler \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr
Unlike static linking, the order in which libraries are specified is not important. Remember to set LD_
LIBRARY_PATH to include the directory containing the Allinea sampler libraries before running your
application:
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/users/ddt/allinea:\$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
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17.2
Profiling a Program
Figure 89: Run window
If you click the Profile button on the MAP Welcome Page you will see the window above. The settings
are grouped into sections. Click the Details... button to expand a section. The settings in each section
are described below.
17.2.1
Application
Application: The full path name to your application. If you specified one on the command line, this will
already be filled in. You may browse for an application by clicking on the Browse
button.
Note: Many MPIs have problems working with directory and program names containing spaces. We
recommend avoiding the use of spaces in directory and file names.
Arguments: (optional) The arguments passed to your application. These will be automatically filled if
you entered some on the command line.
Note: Avoid using quote characters such as ' and “, as these may be interpreted differently by MAP and
your command shell. If you must use these and cannot get them to work as expected, please contact
support@allinea.com .
stdin file: (optional) This allows you to choose a file to be used as the standard input (stdin) for your
program. MAP will automatically add arguments to mpirunto ensure your input file is used.
Working Directory: (optional) The working (i.e. current directory) to use when running your applica-
tion. If this is blank then MAP's working directory will be used instead.
17.2.2
MPI
Note: If you only have a single process licence or have selected none as your MPI Implementation the
MPI options will be missing. The MPI options are not available when in single process mode. See section
17.4 Profiling Single-Process Program for more details about using a single process.
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Number of processes: The number of processes that you wish to profile. MAP supports hundreds of
thousands of processes but this is limited by your licence. This option may not be displayed if disabled
on the Job Submission options page.
Number of nodes: This is the number of compute nodes that you wish to use to run your program. This
option is only displayed for certain MPI implementations or if it is enabled on the Job Submission options
page.
Processes per node: This is the number of MPI processes to run on each compute node. This op-
tion is only displayed for certain MPI implementations or if it is enabled on the Job Submission options
page.
Implementation: The MPI implementation to use, e.g. Open MPI, MPICH 2 etc. Normally the Auto
setting will detect the currently loaded MPI module correctly. If you are submitting a job to a queue the
queue settings will also be summarised here. You may change the MPI implementation by clicking on
the Change... button.
Note: The choice of MPI implementation is critical to correctly starting MAP. Your system will normally
use one particular MPI implementation. If you are unsure as to which to pick, try generic, consult your
system administrator or Allinea. A list of settings for common implementations is provided in B MPI
Distribution Notes and Known Issues.
Note: If your desired MPI command is not in your PATH, or you wish to use an MPI run command that is
not your default one, you can configure this using the Options window (See section 24.5.1 System).
mpirun arguments: (optional): The arguments that are passed to mpirunor your equivalent – usually
prior to your executable name in normal mpirunusage. You can place machine file arguments – if
necessary – here. For most users this box can be left empty.
Note: You should not enter the -np argument as MAP will do this for you.
17.2.3
Environment Variables
The optional Environment Variables section should contain additional environment variables that should
be passed to mpirunor its equivalent. These environment variables may also be passed to your pro-
gram, depending on which MPI implementation your system uses. Most users will not need to use this
box.
17.2.4
Profiling
Click Run to start your program – or Submit if working through a queue (See section 24.2 Integration
With Queuing Systems). This will compile up a MPI wrapper library on the fly that can intercept the
MPI_INIT call and gather statistics about MPI use in your program. If this has problems see E.9.2
MPI Wrapper Libraries. Then MAP brings up the Running window and starts to connect to your pro-
cessses.
The program runs inside MAP which starts collecting stats on your program through the MPI interface
you selected and will allow your MPI implementation to determine which nodes to start which processes
on.
MAP collects data for the entire program run by default – our sampling algorithms ensure only a few
tens of megabytes are collected even for very long-running jobs. If you wish, you can stop your program
at any time by using the Stop and Analyze button – MAP will then collect the data recorded so far, stop
your program and end the MPI session before showing you the results. If any processes remain you
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may have to clean them up manually using the kill command (or a command provided with your MPI
implementation), but this should not be necessary.
Figure 90: Running window
17.3
remote-exec Required By Some MPIs
When using Open MPI, SGI MPT, MPICH 1 Standard or the MPMD variants of MPICH 2, MPICH 3
or Intel MPI, MAP will allow mpirunto start all the processes, then attach to them while they're inside
MPI_Init.
This method is often faster than the generic method, but requires the remote-exec facility in MAP to
be correctly configured if processes are being launched on a remote machine. For more information on
remote-exec, please see section 24.4 Connecting to remote programs (remote-exec).
Important: If MAP is running in the background (e.g. map &) then this process may get stuck (some
SSH versions cause this behaviour when asking for a password). If this happens to you, go to the terminal
and use the fg or similar command to make MAP a foreground process, or run MAP again, without using
“&”.
If MAP can't find a password-free way to access the cluster nodes then you will not be able to use the spe-
cialised startup options. Instead, You can use generic, although startup may be slower for large numbers
of processes.
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17.4
Profiling Single-Process Program
Figure 91: Single-Process Run Window
Users with single-process licences will immediately see the Run Window that is appropriate for single-
process applications.
Users with multi-process licences can check the Run Without MPI Support checkbox to run a single
process program.
Select the application – either by typing the file name in, or selecting using the browser by clicking the
browse
button. Arguments can be typed into the supplied box.
Finally click Run to start your program.
17.5
Sending Standard Input
MAP provides a stdin file box in the Run window. This allows you to choose a file to be used as the
standard input (stdin) for your program. (MAP will automatically add arguments to mpirun to ensure
your input file is used.)
Alternatively, you may enter the arguments directly in the mpirun Arguments box. For example, if using
MPI directly from the command-line you would normally use an option to the mpirun such as -stdin
filename, then you may add the same options to the mpirun Arguments box when starting your MAP
session in the Run window.
It is also possible to enter input during a session. Start your program as normal, then switch to the
Input/Output panel. Here you can see the output from your program and type input you wish to send.
You may also use the More button to send input from a file, or send an EOF character.
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Figure 92: MAP Sending Input
Note: If MAP is running on a fork-based system such as Scyld, or a -comm=shared compiled MPICH 1,
your program may not receive an EOF correctly from the input file. If your program seems to hang while
waiting for the last line or byte of input, this is likely to be the problem. See E General Troubleshooting
and Known Issues or contact Allinea for a list of possible fixes.
17.6
Starting A Job In A Queue
If MAP has been configured to be integrated with a queue/batch environment, as described in section
24.2 Integration With Queuing Systems then you may use MAP to launch your job. In this case, a Submit
button is presented on the Run Window, instead of the ordinary Run button. Clicking Submit from the
Run Window will display the queue status until your job starts. MAP will execute the display command
every second and show you the standard output. If your queue display is graphical or interactive then you
cannot use it here.
If your job does not start or you decide not to run it, click on Cancel Job . If the regular expression you
entered for getting the job id is invalid or if an error is reported then MAP will not be able to remove your
job from the queue – it is strongly recommend you check the job has been removed before submitting
another as it is possible for a forgotten job to execute on the cluster and either waste resources or interfere
with other profiling sessions.
After the sampling (program run) phase is complete, MAP will start the analysis phase, collecting and
processing the distinct samples. This could be a lengthy process depending on the size of the program.
For very large programs it could be as much as 10 or 20 minutes.
You should ensure that your job does not hit its queue limits during the analysis process, setting the job
time large enough to cover both the sampling and the analysis phases.
MAP will also require a little extra memory both in the sampling and in the analysis phases. Please,
ensure the job memory allocation is large enough to handle this.
Once your job is running, it will connect to MAP and you will be able to profile it.
17.7
Using Custom MPI Scripts
On some systems a custom 'mpirun' replacement is used to start jobs, such as mpiexec. MAP will
normally use whatever the default for your MPI implementation is, so for MPICH 1 it would look for
mpirunand not mpiexec, for SLURM it would use srun etc. This section explains how to configure
MAP to use a custom mpiruncommand for job start up.
There are typically two ways you might want to start jobs using a custom script, and MAP supports them
both. Firstly, you might pass all the arguments on the command-line, like this:
mpiexec -n 4 /home/mark/program/chains.exe /tmp/mydata
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There are several key variables in this line that MAP can fill in for you:
1. The number of processes (4 in the above example)
2. The name of your program (/home/mark/program/chains.exe)
3. One or more arguments passed to your program (/tmp/mydata)
Everything else, like the name of the command and the format of it's own arguments remains constant.
To use a command like this in MAP, we adapt the queue submission system described in the previous
section. For this mpiexecexample, the settings would be as shown here:
Figure 93: MAP Using Custom MPI Scripts
As you can see, most of the settings are left blank. Let's look at the differences between the Submit
Command in MAP and what you would type at the command-line:
1. The number of processes is replaced with NUM_PROCS_TAG
2. The name of the program is replaced by the full path to ddt-debugger (used by both DDT and
MAP)
3. The program arguments are replaced by PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
Note, it is NOT necessary to specify the program name here. MAP takes care of that during its own
startup process. The important thing is to make sure your MPI implementation starts ddt-debugger
instead of your program, but with the same options.
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The second way you might start a job using a custom mpirunreplacement is with a settings file:
mpiexec -config /home/mark/myapp.nodespec
where myfile.nodespec might contains something like this:
comp00 comp01 comp02 comp03 : /home/mark/program/chains.exe /tmp/
mydata
MAP can automatically generate simple configuration files like this every time you run your program –
you just need to specify a template file. For the above example, the template file myfile.template
would contain the following:
comp00 comp01 comp02 comp03 : DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-debugger
DDT_DEBUGGER_ARGUMENTS_TAG PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
This follows the same replacement rules described above and in detail in section 24.2 Integration With
Queuing Systems. The options settings for this example might be:
Figure 94: MAP Using Substitute MPI Commands
Note the Submit Command and the Submission Template File in particular. MAP will create a new file
and append it to the submit command before executing it. So, in this case what would actually be executed
might be mpiexec -config /tmp/allinea-temp-0112 or similar. Therefore, any argument
like -config must be last on the line, because MAP will add a file name to the end of the line. Other
arguments, if there are any, can come first.
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We recommend reading the section on queue submission, as there are many features described there that
might be useful to you if your system uses a non-standard start up command. If you do use a non-standard
command, please email us at support@allinea.com and let us know about it – you might find the next
version supports it out-of-the-box!
17.8
Starting MAP From A Job Script
While its common when debugging to submit runs from inside a debugger, for profiling the usual approach
would be to run the program offline, producing a profile file that can be inspected later. To do this replace
your usual program invocation with a MAP command. So
mpirun -n 4 PROGRAM [ARGUMENTS]...
becomes
map -profile -n 4 PROGRAM [ARGUMENTS]...
MAP will run without a GUI, gathering data to a .map profile file. Its filename is based on a combina-
tion of program name, processor count and timestamp, like program 2p 2012-12-19 10-51.map
although this may be changed with the -output argument. To examine this file, either run MAP and
select the Load Profile Data File option, or access it directly with command
map program_2p_2012-12-19_10-51.map
By default, when running without a GUI, MAP will print some messages and prefix each line of your pro-
gram's output with the rank. The -silent argument suppresses this additional output so your program's
output is intact.
17.9
MAP Environment Variables
MAP INTERVAL
MAP takes a sample in each 20ms period, giving it a default sampling rate of 50Hz. This will be
automatically decreased as the run proceeds to ensure a constant number of samples are taken (see
MAP_NUM_SAMPLES). If your program runs for a very short period of time, you may benefit by de-
creasing the initial sampling interval. For example, MAP_INTERVAL=1 sets an initial sampling rate of
1000Hz, or once per millisecond. Higher sampling rates are not supported.
MAP KEEP SAMPLES FILES
MAP samples are temporarily written to file. By default MAP deletes the sample file once it has been
re-read. To keep the sample file set MAP_KEEP_SAMPLES_FILES=<directory> and MAP will
move the sample file into the given directory. The file will be suffixed with .keep.
MAP MPI WRAPPER
To direct MAP to use a pre-compiled wrapper instead of generating one on-the-fly set MAP_MPI_
WRAPPER=<pathofsharedobject>. To generate the wrapper set MPICC and run <path
to
MAP
installation>/map/wrapper/build\_wrapper which will generate the wrapper li-
brary ~/.allinea/wrapper/libmap-sampler-pmpi-<hostname>.so with symlinks to
~/.allinea/wrapper/libmap-sampler-pmpi-<hostname>.so.1,
~/.allinea/wrapper/libmap-sampler-pmpi-<hostname>.so.1.0, and ~/.allinea/
wrapper/libmap-sampler-pmpi-<hostname>.so.1.0.0.
MAP MPIRUN
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The path of mpirun, mpiexecor equivalent. If this is set it has higher priority than that set in the GUI
and the mpirunfound in PATH.
MAP NUM SAMPLES
MAP collects 1000 samples per process by default. To avoid generating too much data on long runs, the
sampling rate will be automatically decreased as the run progresses to ensure only 1000 evenly-spaced
samples are stored. You may adjust this by setting MAP_NUM_SAMPLES=<positiveinteger> -
however, we strongly recommend leaving this value at the default setting - higher values are not gener-
ally beneficial and add extra memory overheads while running your code. Bear in mind that with 512
processes, the default setting already collects half a million samples over the job - the effective sampling
rate can be very high indeed.
MAP PRESERVE WRAPPER
To gather data from MPI calls MAP generates a wrapper to the chosen MPI implementation (see 17.1
Preparing a Program for Profiling). By default the generated code and shared objects are deleted when
MAP no longer needs them. To prevent MAP from deleting these files set MAP_PRESERVE_WRAPPER=
1. Please note that if you are using remote launch then this variable must be exported in the remote script
(see Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found).
MAP SAMPLER NO TIME MPI CALLS
Set this to prevent MAP from timing the time spent in MPI calls.
MAP SAMPLER TRY USE SMAPS
Set this to allow MAP to use /proc/[pid]/smaps to gather memory usage data. This is not recom-
mended since it slows down sampling significantly.
MPICC
To create the MPI wrapper MAP will try to use MPICC, then if that fails search for a suitable MPI compiler
command in PATH. If the MPI compiler used to compile the target binary is not in PATH (or if there are
multiple MPI compilers in PATH) then MPICC should be set.
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18
MAP: Program Output
MAP collects and displays output from all processes under the Input/Output tab. Both standard output
and error are shown. As the output is shown after the program has completed, there are not the problems
with buffering that occur with DDT.
18.1
Viewing Standard Output And Error
Figure 95: MAP Standard Output Window
The Input/Output tab is at the bottom of the screen (by default).
The output may be selected and copied to the X-clipboard.
18.2
Displaying Selected Processes
You can choose whether to view the output for all processes, or just a single process.
Note: Some MPI implementations pipe stdin, stdout and stderr from every process through mpirun or
rank 0.
18.3
Saving Output
By right-clicking on the text it is possible to save it to a file. You also have the option to copy a selection
to the clipboard.
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19
MAP: Source Code View
Figure 96: Source Code View
The centre pane shows your source code, annotated with performance information:
Beside each line of code is a time chart, showing how much total time was spent computing (green)
and communicating (blue) on that line. Above we see that this call to overlap took 20.4% of the total
runtime. The vertical axis is the number of processes and the horizontal is wall clock time. stride is
pure compute, late pure comms, overlap does both.
Only 'interesting' lines get charts - lines in which at least 0.1% of the program's total time was spent.
Finding these by scrolling around can be burdensome - for that you can use the Stacks view.
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20
MAP: Parallel Stack View
Figure 97: MAP Parallel Stack View
The Stacks view is a more classic profiler view, with a twist. Most profilers would show you a list or
graph of functions; in MAP each line in the tree refers to a specific line of source code.
So, where you see MPI Barrier in here it doesn't represent all combined MPI Barrier calls, but
rather the wall clock time from one specific line in your program - which is shown in the Source column.
Clicking on any line also jumps the code view to that position, too.
The percentage MPI time will give you an idea as to how well your program is scaling, and the Stacks
view will show which lines of code spend the most time running, computing or waiting - as with most
places in the GUI you can hover over a line or chart for more a more detailed breakdown.
The Stacks view offers a good top-down view of your program; it's easy to follow down from the main
function to see which code paths took the most time.
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21
MAP: Project Files View
Figure 98: Project files view
The Project Files view helps you in two ways: firstly it's a great way to browse around and navigate
through a large, unfamiliar code base. Secondly, it offers a bottom-up view of the performance of your
program. Each file, function or folder comes with a time chart that shows how much wall clock time was
spent executing code inside that file / function / folder:
Files with multiple routines, like slow.f90 can be expanded. Note it shows the time spent in the routine
(and external routines it calls), but not in other application code routines, so the top level program slow is
only at 0.0% The Project Files view helps you find specific folders, files or functions to optimize whereas
the Stacks view helps you look at paths of execution that take a long time.
The project files view distinguishes between Application Code and External Code. You can choose which
folders count as application code by right-clicking. External Code is typically system libraries that are
hidden away at startup.
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22
MAP: Metrics View
Figure 99: Metrics view
Now that you're familiar with the source code, the stacks and the project files view, let's see how the
metrics view works with all three of them to help you identify, focus on and understand performance
problems:
As with all graphs in MAP, the horizontal axis is wall clock time. By default three metric graphs are
shown, displaying how each your application's use of memory, MPI call duration and floating-point (in-
cluding SIMD instructions) varied across processes and time. Each vertical slice of a graph shows the
distribution of values across processes for that moment in time - the minimum and maximum are clear,
and shading is used to display the mean and standard deviation of the distribution.
A thin line means all processes had very similar values; a fat shaded region means there is significant
imbalance between the processes. Extra details about each moment in time appear below the metric
graphs as you move the mouse over them.
The metrics view is at the top of the GUI for a very good reason - it ties all the other views together.
Move your mouse across one of the graphs, and a black vertical line will appear on every other graph in
MAP, showing what was happening at that moment in time.
Even better, you can click and drag to select a region of time within it. All the other views and graphs now
redraw themselves to show just what happened during the selected period of time, ignoring everything
else. Try it and see! It's a fascinating way to isolate interesting parts of your application's execution. To
re-select the entire time range just double-click or use the "Select All" button.
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Figure 100: Map with a region of time selected
In the above screenshot a short region of time has been selected around an interesting sawtooth in time
in MPI_BARRIER because PE 1 holds things up. The first block accepts data in PE order, so is badly
delayed, the second block is more flexible, accepting data from any PE, so PE 1 can compute in paral-
lel. The Code View shows how compute and comms are serialized in the first block, but overlap in the
second.
There are many more metrics than those displayed by default. Click the Metrics button or right-click on
the metric graphs and you can choose any combination of the following:
Memory Usage: The current RAM usage of each process. The interesting thing about this figure is that
memory that is allocated and never used is generally not shown - only pages actively swapped into RAM
by the OS count. This means that you'll often see memory usage ramp up as arrays are initialized. The
slopes of these ramps can be interesting in themselves.
Note: this means if you malloc or ALLOCATE a large amount of memory but don't actually use it the
Memory Usage metric will not increase.
MPI call duration: This metric tracks the time spent in an MPI call so far. PEs waiting at a barrier (MPI
blocking sends, reductions, waits and barriers themselves) will ramp up time until finally they escape.
Large areas show lots of wasted time and are prime targets for investigation. The pe with no time spent
in calls is likely to be the last one to arrive, so should be the focus for any imbalance reduction.
MPI bytes sent / received: This pair of metrics tracks the number of bytes passed to MPI send / receive
functions per second. This is not the same as the speed with which data is transmitted over the network -
that information isn't available. This means that an MPI call that receives a large amount of data and com-
pletes almost instantly will have an unnaturally high instantaneous rate. These metrics may be replaced
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in future releases - let us know if you want to keep them!
MPI point-to-point / collective operations: This pair of metrics tracks the number of point-to-point /
collective calls per second. A long shallow period followed by a sudden spike is typical of a late sender -
most processes are spending a long time in one MPI call (very low #calls per second) while one computes.
When that one reaches the matching MPI call it completes much faster, causing a sudden spike in the
graph. These metrics may be replaced in future releases - let us know if you want to keep them!
CPU floating-point: The percentage of time each rank spends in floating-point CPU instructions. This
includes vectorized / SIMD instructions and standard x87 floating-point. High values here suggest CPU-
bound areas of the code that are probably functioning as expected.
CPU integer: The percentage of time each rank spends in integer CPU instructions. This includes vec-
torized / SIMD instructions and standard integer operations. High values here suggest CPU-bound areas
of the code that are probably functioning as expected.
CPU memory access: The percentage of time each rank spends in memory access CPU instructions,
such as move, load and store. This also includes vectorized memory access functions. High values
here may indicate inefficiently-structured code. Extremely high values (98% and above) almost always
indicate cache problems. Typical cache problems include cache misses due to incorrect loop orderings
but may also include more subtle features such as false sharing or cache line collisions.
CPU floating-point vector: The percentage of time each rank spends in vectorized / SIMD floating-
point instructions. Well-optimized floating-point-based HPC code should spend most of its time running
these operations; this metric provides a good check to see whether your compiler is correctly vectorizing
hotspots. Future releases will show a breakdown between the kind of instructions e.g. SSE vs AVX. See
section E.6 for a list of the instructions considered vectorized.
CPU integer vector: The percentage of time each rank spends in vectorized / SIMD integer instructions.
Well-optimized integer-based HPC code should spend most of its time running these operations; this
metric provides a good check to see whether your compiler is correctly vectorizing hotspots. See section
E.6 for a list of the instructions considered vectorized.
CPU branch: The percentage of time each rank spends in test and branch-related instructions such
as test, cmp and je. A well-optimized HPC code should not spend much time in branch-related
instructions. Typically the only branch hotspots are during MPI calls, in which the MPI layer is checking
whether a message has been fully-received or not. This metric may not be included in future releases -
let us know if you find it useful.
Disk read transfer: The rate at which the application reads data from disk, in bytes per second. This
includes data read from network filesystems (such as NFS), but may not include all local I/O due to page
caching.
Disk write transfer: The rate at which the application writes data to disk, in bytes per second. This
includes data written to network filesystems.
Note: Disk transfer metrics are not available on Cray X-series systems as the necessary Linux kernel
support is not enabled.
You can return to the default set of metrics at any time by choosing the "Preset: Default" option.
22.1
Detecting MPI imbalance
The metrics view show the distribution of their value across all processes against time, so any 'fat' regions
are showing an area of imbalance in this metric. Analysing imbalance in MAP works like this:
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1. Look at the metrics view for any 'fat' regions - these represent imbalance in that metric during that
region of time. This tells us (A) that there is an imbalance, and (B) which metrics are affected.
2. Click and drag on the metrics view to select the 'fat' region, zooming the rest of the controls in to
just this period of imbalance.
3. Now the stacks view and the source code views show which functions and lines of code were
being executed during this imbalance. Are the processes executing different lines of code? Are
they executing the same one, but with differing efficiencies? This tells us (C) which lines of code
and execution paths are part of the imbalance.
4. Hover the mouse over the fattest areas on the metric graph and watch the minimum and maximum
process ranks. This tells us (D) which ranks are most affected by the imbalance.
Now we know (A) whether there is an imbalance and (B) which metrics (CPU, memory, FPU, I/O) it
affects. We also know (C) which lines of code and (D) which ranks to look at in more detail.
Often this is more than enough information to understand the immediate cause of the imbalance (e.g. late
sender, workload imbalance) but for a deeper view we can now switch to DDT and re-run the program
with a breakpoint in the affected region of code. Examining the two ranks highlighted as the minimum
and maximum by MAP with the full power of an interactive debugger helps get to the root cause of the
imbalance behaviour.
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23
Running MAP from the Command Line
MAP can be run from the command line with the following arguments:
-nompi
Run MAP with 1 process and without invoking mpirun, mpiexec, or equivalent.
-queue
Force MAP to submit the job to the queueing system.
-noqueue
Run MAP without submitting the job to the queueing system.
-profile
Generate a MAP profile but without user interaction. This will not display the MAP GUI. Messages are
printed to the standard output and error. The job is not run using the queueing system unless used in
conjunction with -queue. When the job finishes a map file is written and its name is printed.
23.1
Profiling MPMD Programs
The command to create a profile from an MPMD program using MAP is:
map <map mode> -n <#processes> -mpiargs <MPMD command> <one MPMD
program>
This example shows how to run MAP without user interaction using the flag -profile:
map -profile -n 16 -mpiargs "-n 8 ./exe1 : -n 8 ./exe2" ./exe1
First we set the amount of processes used by the MPMD programs, in our case 8+8=16, then an MPMD
style command as an mpi argument and finally one of the MPMD programs.
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24
Configuration
Note: DDT and MAP can share the same configuration files so in this section references to DDT can be
replaced by MAP.
24.1
Configuration files
DDT and MAP are controlled by two configuration files: the system wide system.config and the
user specific user.config. The system wide configuration file specifies properties such as MPI im-
plementation. The user specific configuration file describes user's preferences such as font size. The files
are controlled by environment variables:
Environment Variable
Default
ALLINEA_TOOLS_USER_CONFIG
${ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR}/user.config
ALLINEA_TOOLS_SYSTEM_CONFIG
${ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR}/system.config
ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR
${HOME}/.allinea
24.1.1
Site Wide Configuration
If you are the system administrator, or have write-access to the installation directory, you can provide a
configuration file which other users will be given a copy of – automatically – the first time that they start
DDT/MAP.
This can save other users from the configuration process – which can be quite involved if site-specific
configuration such as queue templates and job submission have to be crafted for your location.
First configure DDT/MAP normally and run a test program to make sure all the settings are correct. When
you are happy with your configuration execute one of the following commands:
ddt -cleanconfig
map -cleanconfig
This will remove any user-specific settings (such as the last program you ran) from your configuration
file to make a system.config file. Follow the instructions the command gives to make it available
as a template for all users.
If you want to use DDT to attach to running jobs you will also need to create a file called nodes in the
installation directory with a list of compute nodes you want to attach to. See section 4.8 Attaching To
Running Programs for details.
24.1.2
Converting Legacy Site-Wide Configuration Files
If you have existing site-wide configuration files from a version of Allinea DDT prior to 4.0 you will need
to convert them to the new 4.0 format. This can easily be done using the following command line:
ddt -config oldconfig.ddt -systemconfig newconfig.ddt -cleanconfig
Note: newconfig.ddt must not exist beforehand.
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24.1.3
Using Shared Home Directories on Multiple Systems
If your site uses the same home directory for multiple systems you may want to use a different configu-
ration directory for each system.
You can do this by specifying the ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR environment variable before start-
ing DDT/MAP. For example if you use the module system you may choose to set ALLINEA_TOOLS_
CONFIG_DIR according to which system the module was loaded on.
For example, say you have two systems: harvester with login nodes harvester-login1 and harvester-
login2 and sandworm with login nodes sandworm-login1 and sandworm-login2. You may
add something like the snippet below to your module file:
case $(hostname) in
harvester-login*)
ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR=$HOME/.allinea/harvester
;;
sandworm-login*
ALLINEA_TOOLS_CONFIG_DIR=$HOME/.allinea/sandworm
;;
esac
24.1.4
Using a Shared Installation on Multiple Systems
If you have multiple systems sharing a common Allinea Tools installation you may wish to have a differ-
ent default configuration for each system. You can use the ALLINEA_TOOLS_DEFAULT_SYSTEM_
CONFIG environment variable to specify a different file for each system. For example, you may add
something like the snippet below to your module file:
case $(hostname) in
harvester-login*)
ALLINEA_TOOLS_DEFAULT_SYSTEM_CONFIG=/sw/allinea/tools/
harvester.config
;;
sandworm-login*
ALLINEA_TOOLS_DEFAULT_SYSTEM_CONFIG=/sw/allinea/tools/
sandworm.config
;;
esac
24.1.5
Importing Legacy Configuration
If you have used a version of Allinea DDT prior to 4.0 your existing configuration will be imported
automatically. If the DDTCONFIG environment variable is set or the -config command-line argument
used the existing configuration will be imported but legacy configuration file will not be modified, and
subsequent configuration changes will be saved as described in the sections above.
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24.2
Integration With Queuing Systems
Figure 101: Queuing Systems
DDT/MAP can be configured to work with most job submission systems. In the Options window (Pref-
erences on Mac OS X), you should choose Submit job through queue. This displays extra options and
switches the software into queue submission mode.
The basic stages in configuring to work with a queue are:
1. Making a template script, and
2. Setting the commands used to submit, cancel, and list queue jobs.
Your system administrator may wish to provide a configuration file containing the correct settings, re-
moving the need for individual users to configure their own settings and scripts.
In this mode, DDT/MAP uses a template script to interact with your queuing system. The templates
subdirectory contains some example scripts that can be modified to meet your needs. {installation-
directory}/templates/sample.qtf, demonstrates the process of creating a template file in
some detail.
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24.3
Template Tutorial
Ordinarily, your queue script will probably end in a line that starts mpirun with your target executable.
In most cases you can simply replace that line with AUTO\_LAUNCH\_TAG. For example, if your script
currently has the line:
mpirun -np 16 program_name myarg1 myarg2
then create a copy of it and replace that line with:
AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG
Select this file as the Submission template file on the Job Submission Settings page of the Options. Notice
that you are no longer explicitly specifying the number of processes, etc. You instead specify the number
of processes, program name and arguments in the Run window.
Fill in Submit command with the command you usually use to submit your job, e.g. qsub or sbatch,
Cancel command with the command you usually use to cancel a job, e.g. qdel or scancel and Dis-
play command with the command you usually use to display the current queue status, e.g. qstat or
squeue.
You can usually use (+.) as the Regexp for job id (this just looks for a number in the output from your
Submit command).
Once you have a simple template working you can go on to make more things configurable from the
GUI. For example, to be able to specify the number of nodes from the GUI you would replace an explicit
number of nodes with the NUM NODES TAG, e.g. replace:
#SBATCH --nodes=100
with:
#SBATCH --nodes=NUM_NODE_TAG
See appendix F.1 Queue Template Tags for a full list of tags.
24.3.1
The Template Script
The template script is based on the file you would normally use to submit your job – typically a shell script
that specifies the resources needed such as number of processes, output files, and executes mpirun,
vmirun, poe or similar with your application.
The most important difference is that job-specific variables, such as number of processes, number of nodes
and program arguments, are replaced by capitalized keyword tags, such as NUM_PROCS_TAG.
When DDT/MAP prepares your job, it replaces each of these keywords with its value and then submits
the new file to your queue.
24.3.2
Configuring Queue Commands
Once you have selected a queue template file, enter submit, display and cancel commands.
When you start a session DDT/MAP will generate a submission file and append its file name to the submit
command you give.
For example, if you normally submit a job by typing job submit -u myusername -f myfile
then you should enter job submit -u myusername -f as the submit command.
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To cancel a job, DDT/MAP will use a regular expression you provide to get a value for JOB_ID_TAG.
This tag is found by using regular expression matching on the output from your submit command. See
appendix F.6 Job ID Regular Expression for details.
24.3.3
Configuring How Job Size is Chosen
DDT / MAP offer a number of flexible ways to specify the size of a job. You may choose whether
Number of Processes and Number of Nodes options appear in the Run window or whether these should
be implicitly calculated. Similarly you may choose to display Processes per node in the Run window or
set it to a Fixed value.
Note: if you choose to display Processes per node in the Run window and PROCS_PER_NODE_TAG is
specified in the queue template file then the tag will always be replaced by the Processes per node value
from the Run dialog, even if the option is unchecked there.
24.3.4
Quick Restart
DDT allows you to quickly restart a job without resubmitting it to the queue if your MPI implementation
supports it. Simply check the Quick Restart check box on the Job Submission Options page.
In order to use quick restart, your queue template file must use AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG to execute your
job.
For more information on AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG, see F.4.1 Using AUTO LAUNCH TAG.
24.4
Connecting to remote programs (remote-exec)
When DDT needs to access another machine for remote launch or as part of starting some MPIs, it will
attempt to use the secure shell, ssh, by default.1
However, this may not always be appropriate, ssh may be disabled or be running on a different port to
the normal port 22. In this case, you can create a file called remote-exec which is placed in your
/.allinea directory and DDT will use this instead.
DDT will use look for the script at
/.allinea/remote-exec, and it will be executed as fol-
lows:
remote-exec HOSTNAME APPNAME [ARG1] [ARG2] ...
The script should start APPNAME on HOSTNAME with the arguments ARG1 ARG2 without further in-
put (no password prompts). Standard output from APPNAME should appear on the standard output of
remote-exec. An example is shown below:
SSH based remote-exec
A remote-exec script using ssh running on a non-standard port could look as follows:
#!/bin/sh
ssh -P {port-number} $*
In order for this to work without prompting for a password, you should generate a public and private
SSH key, and ensure that the public key has been added to the
/.ssh/authorized keys file on
machines you wish to use. See the ssh-keygen manual page for more information.
1The remote-exec script is not used on Windows, so this section is inapplicable to that platform.
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Testing
Once you have set up your remote-exec script, it is recommended that you test it from the command
line. e.g.
˜/.allinea/remote-exec TESTHOST uname -n
Should return the output of uname -n on TESTHOST, without prompting for a password.
If you are having trouble setting up remote-exec, please contact support@allinea.com for assis-
tance.
24.5
Optional Configuration
DDT/MAP provides an options window (Preferences on Mac OS X), which allows you to quickly edit
the settings in the configuration wizard, as well as other non-essential preferences. These options are
outlined briefly below.
24.5.1
System
MPI Implementation: Allows you to tell DDT/MAP which MPI implementation you are using.
Note: If you are not using DDT to debug MPI programs select none.
Override default mpirun path: Allows you to override the path to the mpirun(or equivalent) com-
mand.
Select Debugger: Tells DDT/MAP which underlying debugger it should use. This should almost always
be left as Automatic.
On Linux systems DDT 4.2.1 ships with two versions of the GNU GDB debugger: GDB 7.2 and GDB
7.6.2. GDB 7.2 is the same version as ships with DDT 4.2 and is provided for backwards compatibility.
GDB 7.6.2 provides, amongst other things, improved DWARF 4 and C++ support and is recommended
if you are using a recent compiler such as GCC 4.8.
Create Root and Workers groups automatically: If this option is checked DDT will automatically cre-
ate a Root group for rank 0 and a Workers group for ranks 1... n when you start a new MPI session.
Use Shared Symbol Cache: The shared symbol cache is a file that contains all the symbols in your pro-
gram in a format that can be used directly by the debugger. Rather than loading and converting the sym-
bols itself, every debugger shares the same cache file. This significantly reduces the amount of memory
used on each node by the debuggers. For large programs there may be a delay starting a job while the cache
file is created as it may be quite large. The cache files are stored in $HOME/.allinea/symbols. We
recommend only turning this option on if you are running out of memory on compute nodes when de-
bugging programs with DDT.
Heterogeneous system support: DDT has support for running heterogeneous MPMD MPI applications
where some nodes use one architecture and other nodes use another architecture. This requires a little
preparation of your DDT installation. You must have a separate installation of DDT for each architec-
ture. The architecture of the machine running the DDT GUI is called the host architecture. You must
create symbolic links from the host architecture installation of DDT to the other installations for the other
architectures. For example with a 64-bit x86 64 host architecture (running the GUI) and some compute
nodes running the 32-bit i686 architecture:
ln -s /path/to/ddt-i686/bin/ddt-debugger \
/path/to/ddt-x86_64/bin/ddt-debugger.i686
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Enable CUDA software pre-emption (CUDA 5.5+): Allows debugging of CUDA kernels on a work-
station with a single GPU.
Copy files to compute nodes
Xeon Phi: Copy the DDT debugger daemon files to the Xeon Phi cards when attaching to an offload
process. With this option enabled the DDT installation does not need to be visible on the Phi card - i.e.
no shared filesystem is required.
Bluegene: Copy the DDT debugger daemon files to the Bluegene I/O nodes. This may offer better
debugging performance, but comes at the expense of consuming more RAM on the I/O nodes. To use
this option approximately 50% of the I/O node RAM should be free during normal operation, otherwise
you risk exhausting the RAM on the I/O nodes.
Default groups file: Entering a file here allows you to customise the groups displayed by DDT when
starting an MPI job. If you do not specify a file DDT will create the default Root and Workers groups if
the previous option is checked.
Note: A groups file can be created by right clicking the process groups panel and selecting Save groups...
while running your program.
Attach hosts file: When attaching, DDT will fetch a list of processes for each of the hosts listed in this
file. See section 4.8 Attaching To Running Programs for more details.
24.5.2
Job Submission
This section allows you to configure DDT/MAP to use a custom mpiruncommand, or submit your
jobs to a queuing system. For more information on this, see section 24.2 Integration With Queuing
Systems.
24.5.3
Code Viewer Settings
This allows you to configure the appearance of the DDT/MAP code viewer (used to display your source
code while debugging)
Tab size : Sets the width of a tab character in the source code display. (A width of 8 means that a tab
character will have the same width as 8 space characters.)
Font name: The name of the font used to display your source code. It is recommended that you use a
fixed width font.
Font size: The size of the font used to display your source code.
Editor : This is the program DDT/MAP will execute if you right click the code viewer and choose Open
file in editor. This command should launch a graphical editor. If no editor is specified, DDT/MAP will
attempt to launch a default editor (as configured in your desktop environment).
Colour Scheme: Colour palette to use for the code viewer's background, text and syntax highlighting.
Defined in Kate syntax definition format in the resource/styles directory of the DDT/MAP in-
stall.
Visualize Whitespace: Enables or disables this display of sybols to represent whitespace. Useful for
distinguishing between space and tab characters.
Warn about potential programming errors: This setting enables or disables the use of static analysis
tools that are included with the Allinea DDT installation. These tools support F77, C and C++, and analyse
the source code of viewed source files to discover common errors, but can cause heavy CPU usage on
the system running the DDT user interface. You can disable this by unchecking this option.
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24.5.4
Appearance
This section allows you to configure the graphical style of DDT/MAP, as well fonts and tab settings for
the code viewer.
Look and Feel: This determines the general graphical style of DDT/MAP. This includes the appearance
of buttons, context menus.
Override System Font Settings: This setting can be used to change the font and size of all components
in DDT/MAP (except the code viewer).
24.5.5
VisIt
Allow the use of VisIt with DDT: When ticked DDT will launch VisIt whenever a Vispoint is hit, or on
demand.
VisIt launch command: The full path to the VisIt binary (visit).
Custom Arguments: Any extra arguments to pass to VisIt.
Launch VisIt with small viewer: Launches VisIt with a smaller viewer window.
Use Hardware Acceleration: Enable hardware acceleration (uses GPU for rendering).
Raise DDT window when a 'DDT pick' is made in VisIt: When enabled, selecting an cell/zone with the
DDT pick tool within VisIt will cause DDT to attempt to raise its window to the top of your desktop. Note
that this may not be successful as many window managers prevent applications from raising themselves
in this way.
Close VisIt when the DDT session ends: It is not possible to interact with a VisIt visualization once DDT
has ended the session (the program containing the arrays to visualize no longer exists). To avoid confusion
and prevent problems when next viewing a VisIt visualization it is recommended VisIt be closed when
the DDT session ends, and a fresh VisIt instance launched as needed for the next visualization.
Enable vispoints: When a visualization breakpoint is hit DDT transfers control to VisIt where you can
visualise a given array from your program. Vispoints do not work with programs that are already instru-
mented for use with VisIt (See section 16.9 Using DDT with a pre-instrumented program).
Automatically create Pseudocolour plots for variables: When a new vispoint is hit the vispoint's array
variables will automatically be plotted (using pseudocolour plots) within VisIt. When there are multiple
array variables to visualize each will be plotted in a viewer window. Note that this feature uses the VisIt
CLI and that whilst the viewer windows are being created and configured a CLI terminal window will be
briefly visible.
If you see a dialog “VisIt is waiting for a CLI to launch” for more than 10 seconds it is likely VisIt is
unable to provide a CLI on your system. On Linux systems the program xterm is required to use VisIt's
CLI.
VisIt launch command on compute nodes: The full path to the VisIt binary on the compute nodes (if
different from the frontend).
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25
The Licence Server
The licence server supplied with DDT/MAP is capable of serving clients for several different licences, en-
abling one server to serve all Allinea software in an organization. There is no need to run separate licence
servers for DDT and MAP – one combined licence server provides licences for both products.
25.1
Running The Server
For security, the licence server should be run as an unprivileged user (e.g. nobody). If run without argu-
ments, the server will use licences in the current directory (files matching Licence* and License*).
An optional argument specifies the pathname to be used instead of the current.
System administrators will normally wish to add scripts to start the server automatically during booting.
allinea licensing init is a SysV init style script for Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SuSE En-
terprise Linux that may be used to start the server. To install the script follow the instructions below as
root:
1. Edit ALLINEA TOOLS PATH at the top of the script to point to the Allinea tools installation.
2. Set ALLINEA TOOLS PATH to the path to the Allinea tools installation.
3. Copy the script to /etc/init.d:
cp "${ALLINEA_TOOLS_PATH}/bin/allinea_licensing_init" /etc/
init.d/
4. Make a new user to run the licenceserver:
adduser --system --user-group --no-create-home --home-dir "
${ALLINEA_TOOLS_PATH}/tools" allinea
5. Enable the service at boot time:
chkconfig --add allinea_licensing_init
6. Start the service:
service allinea_licensing_init start
7. Check that is started ok:
service allinea_licensing_init status
Logs may be found in /var/log/allinea.log by default.
25.2
Running DDT/MAP Clients
DDT/MAP will, as is also the case for fixed licences, use a licence directory either specified via environ-
ment variables (ALLINEA_LICENCE_DIR or ALLINEA_LICENSE_DIR) or from the default location
of {installation-directory}/licences.
In the case of floating licences this file is unverified and in plain-text, it can therefore be changed by the
user if settings need to be amended.
The fields are:
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Name
Required
Description
hostname
Yes
The hostname, or IP address of the licence server
ports
No
A comma separated list of ports to be tried locally for GUI-
backend communication, Defaults to 4242,4243,4244,4244,4245
serial number
Yes
The serial number of the server licence to be used
serverport
Yes
The port the server listens on
type
Yes
Must have value 2 – this identifies the licence as needing a server
to run properly
Note: The serial number of the server licence is specified as this enables a user to be tied to a particular
licence.
25.3
Logging
Set the environment variable ALLINEA_LICENCE_LOGFILE to the file that you wish to append log
information to. Set ALLINEA_LICENCE_LOGLEVEL to set the amount of information required. These
steps must be done prior to starting the server.
• Level 0: no logging.
• Level 1: client licences issued are shown, served licences are listed.
• Level 2: stale licences are shown when removed, licences still being served are listed if there is no
spare licence.
• Level 3: full request strings received are displayed
• Level 6: is the maximum.
In level 1 and above, the MAC address, user name, process ID, and IP address of the clients are logged.
25.4
Troubleshooting
Licences are plain-text which enables the user to see the parameters that are set; a checksum verifies the
validity. If problems arise, the first step should be to check the parameters are consistent with the machine
that is being used (MAC and IP address), and that, for example, the number of users is as expected.
25.5
Adding A New Licence
To add a new licence to be served, copy the file to the directory where the existing licences are served
and restart the server. Existing clients should not experience disruption, if the restart is completed within
a minute or two.
25.6
Examples
In this example, a dedicated licence server machine exists but uses the same file system as the client
machines, and the software is installed at /opt/allinea/tools.
To run the licenceserver as nobody, serving all licences in /opt/allinea/tools, and logging
most events to the /var/log/allinea.log.
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% su – nobody
Password:
% export ALLINEA_LICENCE_LOGFILE=/var/log/allinea.log
% export ALLINEA_LICENCE_LOGLEVEL=2
% cd /opt/allinea/tools
% ./bin/licenceserver /opt/allinea/tools/ &
% exit
Serving the floating licences from the same directory as a normal installation is possible as the licence
server will ignore licences that are not server licences.
If the server licence is file /opt/allinea/tools/licences/Licence.server.physics
and is served by the machine server.physics.acme.edu, on port 4252, the licence would look
like:
type=3
serial_number=1014
max_processes=48
expires=2004-04-01 00:00:00
support_expires=2004-04-01 00:00:00
mac=00:E0:81:03:6C:DB
interface=eth0
debuggers=gdb
serverport=4252
max_users=2
beat=60
retry_limit=4
hash=P5I:?L,FS=[CCTB<IW4
hash2=c18101680ae9f8863266d4aa7544de58562ea858
Then the client licence could be stored at /opt/allinea/tools/licences/Licence.client.
physics and contain:
type=2
serial_number=1014
hostname=server.physics.acme.edu
serverport=4252
25.7
Example Of Access Via A Firewall
SSH forwarding can be used to reach machines that are beyond a firewall, for example the remote user
would start:
ssh -C -L 4252:server.physics.acme.edu:4242 login.physics.acme.edu
And a local licence file should be created:
type=2
serial_number=1014
hostname=localhost
serverport=4252
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25.8
Querying Current Licence Server Status
The licence server provides a simple HTML interface to allow for querying of the current state of the
licences being served. This can be accessed in a web browser at the following URL:
http://<hostname>:<serverport>/status.html
For example, using the values from the licence file examples, above:
http://server.physics.acme.edu:4252/status.html
Initially, no licences will be being served, and the output in your browser window should look something
like:
[Licences start]
[Licence Serial Number: 1014]
[No licences allocated - 2 available]
[Licences end]
As licences are served and released, this information will change. To update the licence server sta-
tus display, simply refresh your web browser window. For example, after one DDT/MAP has been
started:
[Licences start]
[Licence Serial Number: 1014]
[1 licences available]
[Client 1]
[mac=00:04:23:99:79:65; uname=gwh; pid=14007; licence=1014]
[Latest heartbeat: 2004-04-13 11:59:15]
[Licences end]
Then, after another DDT/MAP is started and the web browser window is refreshed (notice the value for
number of licences available):
[Licences start]
[Licence Serial Number: 1014]
[0 licences available]
[Client 1]
[mac=00:04:23:99:79:65; uname=gwh; pid=14007; licence=1014]
[Latest heartbeat: 2004-04-13 12:04:15]
[Client 2]
[mac=00:40:F4:6C:4A:71; uname=graham; pid=3700; licence
=1014]
[Latest heartbeat: 2004-04-13 12:04:59]
[Licences end]
Finally, after the first DDT/MAP finishes:
[Licences start]
[Licence Serial Number: 1014]
[1 licences available]
[Client 1]
[mac=00:40:F4:6C:4A:71; uname=graham; pid=3700; licence
=1014]
[Latest heartbeat: 2004-04-13 12:07:59]
[Licences end]
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25.9
Licence Server Handling Of Lost DDT/MAP Clients
Should the licence server lose communication with a particular instance of a client, the licence allocated to
that particular client will be made unavailable for new clients until a certain time out period has expired.
The length of this time out period can be calculated from the licence server file values for beat and
retry limit:
lost_client_timeout_period = (beat seconds) * (retry_limit + 1)
So, for the example licence files above, the time out period would be:
60 * (4 + 1) = 300 seconds
During this time out period, details of the 'lost' client will continue to be output by the licence server
status display. As long as additional licences are available, new clients can be started. However, once all
of these additional licences have been allocated, new clients will be refused a licence while this time out
period is active.
After this time out period has expired, the licence server status will continue to display details of the
'lost' client until another client is started. The licence server will grant a licence to the new client and the
licence server status display will then reflect the details of the new client.
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A
Supported Platforms
A full list of supported platforms and configurations is maintained on the Allinea website. It is likely that
MPI distributions supported on one platform will work immediately on other platforms.
A.1
DDT
See http://www.allinea.com/products/ddt-platforms.
Platform
Operating Systems
MPI
Compilers
x86 and x86 64
Red
Hat
Enterprise
All known MPIs – in-
GNU, Absoft, Cray, In-
Linux 5, 6 and deriva-
cluding but not limited
tel, Pathscale, PGI, Or-
tives SLES 11 Fedora
to:
All known MPI
acle
12 and above Ubuntu
implementations
and
10.04 and above
platforms – including
but not limited to: SGI
Altix , Bproc, Cray,
Bull MPI 1 and 2,
LAM-MPI, MPICH 1,
MPICH 2, MPICH 3,
Myricom MPICH-GM
and
MPICH-MX,
Open MPI, Quadrics
MPI, Platform (Scali)
MPI,
Scyld,
Intel
MPI,
MVAPICH
1,
MVAPICH 2
Intel Xeon Phi (Intel
MPSS
2.1.4982-15,
Intel MPI and native
Intel, GNU
MIC)
2.1.6720-19, 3.1
mode
IBM Power
AIX 5.3, 6.0 and 6.1
IBM
PE,
MPICH,
IBM XLC, IBM XLF,
Red
Hat
Enterprise
Open MPI
GNU
Linux 6
Blue Gene/Q
Red
Hat
Enterprise
Native
GNU and IBM
Linux 6
ARM v7
Ubuntu 11.04, 12.04
All
GNU
Other
embedded
devices via gdbserver
NVIDIA
Linux
All
CAPS
HMPP,
Cray
CUDA
Toolkit
OpenMP Accelerators,
4.1/4.2/5.0/5.5/6.0
NVCC,
PGI
Accel-
erators,
PGI CUDA
Fortran
Batch scheduling systems such as SLURM, PBS, TORQUE, Moab, Oracle Grid Engine and Loadleveler
are supported through Queue Templates - see section 24.2 Integration With Queuing Systems for more
information. See section B.13 SLURM for more details about SLURM support.
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A.2
MAP
See http://www.allinea.com/products/map/platforms.
Platform
Operating Systems
MPI
Compilers
x86 64
Redhat
Enterprise
Tested: Cray, MPICH
Tested:
GNU, Intel,
Linux 5, 6 and deriva-
2, MPICH 3, Open
Cray, PGI Other com-
tives, SLES 11, Fedora
MPI, Intel MPI, MVA-
pilers supporting the
12 and above, Ubuntu
PICH 1,
SGI MPT
DWARF standard e.g.
10.04 and above
In general any MPI
Pathscale should also
supported
by
DDT
work.
should also work in
MAP, please contact
us if you find this not
to be the case! MPICH
1 is not supported.
Intel Xeon Phi (Intel
MPSS 2.1.6720-19, 3.1
Intel MPI and native
Intel, GNU
MIC)
Please note: older ver-
mode
sions of MPSS are not
supported.
Batch scheduling systems such as SLURM, PBS, TORQUE, Moab, Oracle Grid Engine and Loadleveler
are supported through Queue Templates - see section 24.2 Integration With Queuing Systems for more
information. See section B.13 SLURM for more details about SLURM support.
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B
MPI Distribution Notes and Known Issues
This appendix has brief notes on many of the MPI distributions supported by DDT. Advice on settings
and problems particular to a distribution are given here. MAP, as a newer product, has only been tested
on a subset of these, but may work on the others.
B.1
Bull MPI
Bull MPI 1, MPI 2 and Bull X-MPI are supported. For Bull X-MPI select the Open MPI or Open MPI
(Compatibility) MPIs, depending on whether ssh is allowed (in which case choose Open MPI) or not
(choose Open MPI Compatibility mode).
Select Bull MPI or Bull MPI 1 for Bull MPI 1, or Bull MPI 2 for Bull MPI 2 from the MPI implementations
list. In the mpirun arguments box of the Run window you may also wish to specify the partition that you
wish to use – by adding
-p partition_name
You should ensure that prun, the command used to launch jobs, is in your PATH before starting DDT.
B.2
HP MPI
Select HP MPI as the MPI implementation.
A number of HP MPI users have reported a preference to using mpirun-f jobconfigfile instead
of mpirun-np 10 a.out for their particular system. It is possible to configure DDT to support this
configuration – using the support for batch (queuing) systems.
The role of the queue template file is analogous to the -f jobconfigfile.
If your job config file normally contains:
-h node01 -np 2 a.out
-h node02 -np 2 a.out
Then your template file should contain:
-h node01 -np PROCS_PER_NODE_TAG /usr/local/ddt/bin/ddt-debugger
-h node02 -np PROCS_PER_NODE_TAG /usr/local/ddt/bin/ddt-debugger
and the Submit Command box should be filled with
mpirun -f
Select the Template uses NUM_NODES_TAG and PROCS_PER_NODE_TAG radio button. After this has
been configured by clicking OK, you will be able to start jobs. Note that the Run button is replaced with
Submit, and that the number of processes box is replaced by Number of Nodes.
B.3
Intel MPI
Select Intel MPI from the MPI implementation list. DDT has been tested with Intel MPI 2.0 onwards.
DDT also supports the Intel Message Checker tool that is included in the Intel Trace Analyser and Col-
lector software. A plugin for the Intel Trace Analyser and Collector version 7.1 is provided in DDT's
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plugins directory. Once you have installed the Intel Trace Analyser and Collector, you should make sure
that the following directories are in your LD_LIBRARY_PATH:
{path to intel install directory}/itac/7.1/lib
{path to intel install directory}/itac/7.1/slib
The Intel Message Checker only works if you are using the Intel MPI. Make sure Intel's mpiexec is in
your path, and that your application was compiled against Intel's MPI, then launch DDT, check the plugin
checkbox and debug your application as usual. If one of the above steps has been missed out, DDT may
report an error and say that the plugin could not be loaded.
Once you are debugging with the plugin loaded, DDT will automatically pause the application whenever
Intel Message Checker detects an error. The Intel Message Checker log can be seen in the standard error
(stderr) window.
Note that the Intel Message Checker will abort the job after 1 error by default. You can modify this by
adding -genv VT_CHECK_MAX_ERRORS0 to the mpiun arguments box in the Run window – see Intel's
documentation for more details on this and other environment variable modifiers.
B.4
MPICH 2
If you see the error undefined reference to MPI Status c2f while building the MAP li-
braries (17.1.3 Linking) then you need to rebuild MPICH 2 with Fortran support.
B.5
MPICH 3
MPICH 3.0.3 and 3.0.4 do not work with Allinea DDT or Allinea MAP due to a defect. MPICH 3.1
addresses this and is supported.
There are two MPICH 3 modes – standard and Compatibility. If the standard mode does not work on
your system select MPICH 3 (Compatibility) as the MPI Implementation on the System Settings page of
the Options window.
B.6
IBM PE
Ensure that poe is in your path.
A sample Loadleveler script, which starts debugging jobs on IBM AIX (POE) systems is included in the
{installation-directory}/templates directory.
On AIX 5.3 TL12 when working via Loadleveler, some users have experienced a POE imposed process
count limit and been unable to debug above 5 MPI processes per node. This a known IBM issue and the
default queue script for DDT and the ddt-client script used by it contains a workaround. MAP does
not support AIX.
Select IBM PE as the MPI implementation.
B.7
MVAPICH 1
You will need to specify the hosts on which to launch your job to mvapich's mpirunby using the -
hostfile filename or individually as per the MVAPICH documentation in the mpirun Arguments
box.
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See section 17.1.4 Static Linking for additional notes on linking the MAP MPI wrapper with MVAPICH
1.
B.8
MVAPICH 2
Known issue: If memory debugging is enabled in DDT, this will interfere with the on-demand con-
nection system used by MVAPICH2 above a threshold process count and applications will fail to start.
This threshold default value is 64. To work around this issue, set the environment variable MV2_ON_
DEMAND_THRESHOLD to the maximum job size you expect on your system and then DDT will work
with memory debugging enabled for all jobs. This setting should not be a system wide default as it may
increase startup times for jobs and memory consumption.
MVAPICH 2 now offers mpirun rsh instead of mpirunas a scalable launcher binary – to use this with
DDT, from File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) go to the System page, check Override
default mpirun path and enter mpirun rsh.
B.9
Open MPI
DDT has been tested with Open MPI 1.2.x 1.3.x, 1.4.x, 1.6.x and 1.8.x. Select Open MPI from the list of
MPI implementations.
There are three different Open MPI choices in the list of MPI implementations to choose from in DDT
when debugging for Open MPI.
Open MPI - the job is launched with a custom 'launch agent' that, in turn, launches the Allinea
daemons.
Open MPI (Compatibility) - mpirun launches the Allinea daemons directly. This startup method
does not take advanatage of Allinea's scalable tree.
Open MPI for Cray XT/XE/XK/XC - for Open MPI running on Cray XT/XE/XK/XC systems. This
method is fully able to use DDT's scalable tree infrastructure for large scale debugging.
Known issue: If you are using the 1.6.x series of Open MPI configured with the --enable-orterun-
prefix-by-default flag then DDT requires patch release 1.6.3 or later due to a defect in earlier
versions of the 1.6.x series.
Known issue: The version of Open MPI packaged with Ubuntu has the Open MPI debug libraries stripped.
This prevents the Message Queues feature of DDT from working.
Known issue: With Open MPI 1.3.4 and Intel Compiler v11 – the default build will optimize away a vital
call during the startup protocol which means the default Open MPI start up will not work. If this is your
combination, either update your Open MPI, or select Open MPI (Compatibility) instead as the DDT MPI
Implementation.
Known Issue: On Infiniband systems, Open MPI and CUDA can conflict in a manner that results in
failure to start processes, or a failure for processes to be debuggable. CUDA 4.0 and above can co-
exist with Infiniband – but requires that the environment variable CUDA_NIC_INTEROP is set to 1.
An alternative for CUDA 3.2 is to disable Infiniband completely (provide -mca btl ˆopenib as
an extra mpirun argument in the DDT run dialog). For more information of this issue please see: http:
//cudamusing.blogspot.co.uk/2011/08/cuda-mpi-and-infiniband.html.
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B.10
SGI Altix / SGI MPT
If using SGI MPT 2.10+ select SGI MPT (2.10+, batch) as the MPI implementation.
If using SGI MPT 2.08 or 2.09 select SGI MPT (2.08+, batch) as the MPI implementation.
If using an older version of SGI MPT (2.07 or before) select SGI MPT as the MPI implementation.
If you are using SGI MPT with PBS or SLURM and would normally use mpiexec mpt to launch
your program you will need to use the pbs-sgi-mpt.qtf queue template file and select SGI MPT
(Batch) as the MPI implementation.
mpiexec mpt from versions of SGI MPT prior to 2.10 may prevent MAP from starting when preloading
the MAP sampler and MPI wrapper. We recommend you explicitly link your programs against the MAP
libraries to work around this problem.
SGI MPT 2.09 requires the MPI_SUPPORT_DDT environment variable to be set to 1 to avoid startup
issues when debugging with DDT.
B.11
Cray MPT
MAP users on Cray need to read 17.1.1 Debugging Symbols and 17.1.4 Static Linking on Cray X-Series
Systems.
DDT has been tested with Cray XT 5/6, XE6, XK6/7, and XC30 systems – with DDT submitting via the
queue and also from within an interactive shell. DDT is able to launch and support debugging jobs in
excess of 700,000 cores.
A number of template files for launching applications from within the queue (using DDT's job submission
interface) are included in the distribution of DDT – these may require some minor editing to cope with
local differences on your batch system.
To attach to a running job on a Cray system the MOM nodes (those nodes where aprun is launched) must
be reachable via ssh from the node where DDT is running (eg. a login node). DDT must connect to
these nodes in order to launch debugging daemons on the compute nodes. Users can either specify the
aprun-host manually in the attach dialog when scanning for jobs, or configure a hosts list containing all
MOM nodes.
Note that the default mode for compilers on this platform is to link statically. Section C.8 Portland Group
Compilers describes how to ensure that DDT's memory debugging capabilities will work with the PGI
compilers in this mode.
By default attempting to preload the memory debugging library will raise an error - the library must
be explicitly linked with your program. You can disable the error by setting the DDT ALLOW CRAY -
DMALLOC PRELOAD to 1 before starting DDT. Preloading requires aprun/ALPS 4.1 or later and your
program must be dynamically linked.
Known Issues:
• Message queue debugging is not provided by the XT/XE/XK environment.
• Cray XK6/7 GPU debugging requires the CUDA Toolkit 5 or above to be installed.
• Cray XK6/7 GPU debugging requires a working TMPDIR to be available, if /tmp is not available.
It is important that this directory is not a shared filesystem such as NFS or Lustre. To set TMPDIR
for the compute nodes only use the DDT_BACKEND_TMPDIR environment variable instead (DDT
will automatically propagate this to the compute nodes).
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• Running single process scalar codes (ie. non-MPI/SHMEM/UPC applications) on the compute
nodes requires an extra step – as these are required to be executed by aprun but aprun will not
execute these via the ordinary debug-supporting protocols.
The preferred and simple workaround is to use the .qtf templates (eg. cray-slurm.qtf or
cray-pbs.qtf) which handle this automatically by (for non-MPI codes) ensuring that an alter-
native protocol is followed. To use these qtf files, select File Options (DDT Preferences
on Mac OS X) , go to the Job Submission page and enable submission via the queue, and ensure
that the Also submit scalar jobs via the queue setting is enabled. The change is to explicitly use
aprun for non-MPI processes and this can be seen in the provided queue template files:
if [ "MPI_TAG" == "none" ]; then
aprun -n 1 env AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG
else
AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG
fi
• Running a dynamically-linked single process non-MPI program that will run on a compute node
(i.e. non-MPI CUDA or OpenACC code) will require an additional flag to the compiler: -target=native
- this prevents the compiler linking in the MPI job launch routines that will otherwise interfere with
debuggers on this platform. Alternatively, convert the program to an MPI one by adding MPI -
Init and MPI Finalize statements and run it as a one-process MPI job.
B.11.1
Using DDT with Cray ATP (the Abnormal Termination Process)
DDT is compatible with the Cray ATP system, which will be default on some XE systems. This runtime
addition to applications automatically gathers crashing process stacks, and can be used to let DDT attach
to a job before it is cleaned up during a crash.
To be able to debug after a crash when an application is run with ATP but without a debugger, the ATP_
HOLD_TIME environment variable should be initialized before launching the job – a value of 5 is (very)
ample, even on a large Petscale system, giving 5 minutes for the attach to complete.
The following example shows the typical output of an ATP session.
n10888@kaibab:˜> aprun -n 1200 ./atploop
Application 1110443 is crashing. ATP analysis proceeding...
Stack walkback for Rank 23 starting:
_start@start.S:113
__libc_start_main@libc-start.c:220
main@atploop.c:48
__kill@0x4b5be7
Stack walkback for Rank 23 done
Process died with signal 11: 'Segmentation fault'
View application merged backtrace tree file 'atpMergedBT.dot'
with 'statview'
You may need to 'module load stat'.
atpFrontend: Waiting 5 minutes for debugger to attach...
At this point, DDT can be launched to debug the application.
DDT can attach using the Attaching dialogs described in Section 4.8 Attaching To Running Programs, or
given the PID of the aprun process, the debugging set can be specified from the command line.
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For example, to attach to the entire job:
ddt --attach-mpi 12772
If a particular subset of processes are required, then the subset notation could also be used to select
particular ranks.
ddt –attach-mpi 12772 -subset 23,100-112,782,1199
B.12
Berkeley UPC
Only the MPI transport is supported. Programs must be compiled with the -tv flag, e.g.
upcc hello.c -o hello -g -tv
B.13
SLURM
SLURM may be used as a job scheduler with DDT and MAP through the use of a queue template file - see
templates/slurm.qtf in the Allinea tools installation for an example and section 24.2 Integration
With Queuing Systems for more information on how to customize the template.
To start MPI programs using the srun command instead of your MPI's usual mpirun command (or
equivalent) select SLURM (generic) as the MPI Implementation on the System Settings page of the Op-
tions. Note: this option will work with most MPIs, but not all. See below for some common excep-
tions.
Exceptions:
• Cray MPT programs may not currently be started using srun. You must use start your program
with Cray's aprun instead.
• Bluegene/Q users should select Bluegene/Q (SLURM) as the MPI Implementation instead.
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C
Compiler Notes and Known Issues
When compiling for a DDT debugging session always compile with a minimal amount of, or no, op-
timization - some compilers reorder instruction execution and omit debug information when compiled
with optimization turned on.
C.1
AMD OpenCL compiler
Not supported by MAP.
The AMD OpenCL compiler can produce debuggable OpenCL binaries – however, the target must be
the CPU rather than the GPU device. The build flags -g -O0 must be used when building the OpenCL
kernel, typically by setting the environment variable:
AMD_OCL_BUILD_OPTIONS_APPEND="-g -O0"
The example codes in the AMD OpenCL toolkit are able to run on the CPU by adding a parameter --
device cpu - and will result, with the above environment variable set, in debuggable OpenCL.
C.2
Berkeley UPC Compiler
Not supported by MAP.
The Berkeley UPC compiler is fully supported by Allinea DDT, but only when using the MPI conduit
(other conduits are not supported).
Warning: If you don't compile the program fixing the number of threads (using the -fupc-threads-<numberOfThreads>
flag), a known issue arises at the end of the program execution.
Note: Source files must end with the extension .upc in order for UPC support to be enabled.
C.3
Cray Compiler Environment
DDT supports Cray Fast Track Debugging. In DDT 4.2.1 it is only supported when using GDB 7.2 and
not when using GDB 7.6.2. To enable fast track debugging compile your program with -Gfast instead
of -g. See the Using Cray Fast-track Debugging section of the Cray Programming Environment User's
Guide for more information.
Call-frame information can also be incorrectly recorded, which can sometimes lead to DDT stepping into
a function instead of stepping over it. This may also result in time being allocated to incorrect functions
in MAP.
C++ pretty printing of the STL is not supported by DDT for the Cray compiler.
See CUDA/GPU debugging notes for details of Cray OpenMP Accelerator support.
Allinea DDT fully supports the Cray UPC compiler. Not supported by MAP.
C.4
GNU
The compiler flag -fomit-frame-pointer should never be used in an application which you intend
to debug/profile. Doing so can mean DDT/MAP cannot properly discover your stack frames and you will
be unable to see which lines of code your program has stopped at.
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For GNU C++, large projects can often result in vast debug information size, which can lead to large
memory usage by DDT's back end debuggers – for example each instance of an STL class used in different
object files will result in the compiler generating the same information in each object file.
C.4.1
GNU UPC
DDT also supports the GCC-UPC compiler (upc_threads_model_process only; the pthread-
tls threads model is not supported). MAP does not support this.
To compile and install GCC UPC 4.8 without TLS it is necessary to modify the configuration file path/
to/upc/source/code/directory/libgupc/configure, replacing all the entries upc cv -
gcc tls supported=``yes'' to upc cv gcc tls supported=``no''.
To run a UPC program in DDT you have to select the MPI implementation ``GCC libupc SMP (no
TLS)''
C.5
IBM XLC/XLF
It is advisable to use the -qfullpath option to the IBM compilers (XLC/XLF) in order for source files
to be found automatically when they are in directories other than that containing the executable. This
flag has been known to fail for mpxlf95, and so there may be circumstances when you must right click
in the project navigator and add additional paths to scan for source files.
Module data items behave differently between 32 and 64 bit mode, with 32-bit mode generally enabling
access to more module variables than 64-bit mode.
Missing debug information in the binaries produced by XLF can prevent DDT from showing the values in
Fortran pointers and allocatable arrays correctly, and assumed-size arrays cannot be shown at all. Please
update to the latest compiler version before reporting this to support@allinea.com .
Sometimes, when a process is paused inside a system or library call, DDT will be unable to display the
stack, or the position of the program in the Code view. To get around this, it is sometimes necessary
to select a known line of code and choose Run to here. If this bug affects you, please contact sup-
port@allinea.com .
OpenMP loop variables are often optimized away and not present when debugging.
DDT has been tested against the C compiler xlc version 10.0 and Fortran/Fortran 90 version 12.1 – on
both Linux and AIX. Note that xlC (C++) is not fully supported on AIX.
To view Fortran assumed size arrays in DDT you must first right click on the variable, select Edit Type..,
and enter the type of the variable with its bounds (e.g. integer arr(5) ).
MAP only supports xlc and xlf on Linux.
C.6
Intel Compilers
DDT has been tested with versions 10, 11 and 12.
If you do not see stack traces for allocations in the View Pointer Details window try re-compiling your
program with the -fno-omit-frame-pointer argument (this enables frame pointers).
Some optimizations performed when -ax options are specified to IFC/ICC can result in programs which
cannot be debugged. This is due to the reuse by the compiler of the frame-pointer, which makes DDT
unable to obtain a stack trace.
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The Intel compiler doesn't always provide enough information to correctly determine the bounds of some
Fortran arrays when they are passed as parameters, in particular the lower-bound of assumed-shape ar-
rays.
The Intel OpenMP compiler will always optimise parallel regions, regardless of any -O0 settings. This
means that your code may jump around unexpectedly while stepping inside such regions, and that any
variables which may have been optimised out by the compiler may be shown with nonsense values. There
have also been problems reported in viewing thread-private data structures and arrays. If these affect you,
please contact support@allinea.com .
Files with a .F or .F90 extension are automatically preprocessed by the Intel compiler. This can also
be turned on with the -fpp command-line option. Unfortunately, the Intel compiler does not include the
correct location of the source file in the executable produced when preprocessing is used. If your Fortran
file does not make use of macros and doesn't need preprocessing, you can simply rename its extension
to .f or .f90 and/or remove the -fpp flag from the compile line instead. Alternatively, you can help
DDT discover the source file by right clicking in the Project Files window and then selecting Add/view
source directory and adding the correct directory.
Some versions of the compiler emit incorrect debug information for OpenMP programs which may cause
some OpenMP variables to show as <not allocated>.
By default Fortran PARAMETERS are not included in the debug information output by the Intel com-
piler. You can force them to be included by passing the -debug-parameters all option to the
compiler.
Known Issue: If compiling static binaries (for example on a Cray XT/XE machine) then linking in
the DDT memory debugging library is not straight forward for F90 applications. You will need to
manually re-run the last ld command (as seen with ifort -v) to include -L{ddt-path}/lib/
64-ldmalloc in two locations – both immediately prior to where -lc is located, and also include the
-zmuldefs option at the start of the ld line.
Pretty printing of STL types is not supported for the Intel 10 compiler.
Pretty printing of STL types for the Intel 11 and 12 compiler is almost complete – STL sets, maps and
multi-maps cannot be fully explored – only the total number of items is displayed; other data types are
unaffected.
To disable pretty printing set the environment variable DDT_DISABLE_PRETTY_PRINTING to 1 be-
fore starting DDT. This will enable – in the case of, for example, the incomplete std::set implemen-
tations – you to manually inspect the variable.
C.7
Pathscale EKO compilers
Not supported by MAP.
Known issues: The default Fortran compiler options may not generate enough information for DDT to
show where memory was allocated from – View Pointer Details will not show which line of source code
memory was allocated from. To enable this, please compile and link with the following flags:
-Wl,--export-dynamic -TENV:frame_pointer=ON -funwind-tables
For C programs, simply compiling with -g is sufficient.
When using the Fortran compiler, you may have to place breakpoints in myfile.i instead of my-
file.f90 or myfile.F90. We are currently investigating this; please let us know if it applies to
your code.
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Procedure names in modules often have extra information appended to them. This does not otherwise
affect the operation of DDT with the Pathscale compiler.
The Pathscale 3.1 OpenMP library has an issue which makes it incompatible with programs that call the
fork system call on some machines.
Some versions of the Pathscale compiler (e.g. 3.1) do not emit complete DWARF debugging information
for typedef'ed structures. These may show up in DDT with a void type instead of the expected
type.
Multi-dimensional allocatable arrays can also be given incorrect dimension upper/lower bounds – this
has only been reproduced for large arrays, small arrays seem to be unaffected. This has been observed
with version 3.2 of the compiler, newer/older versions may also exhibit the same issue.
C.8
Portland Group Compilers
MAP has been tested with version 13.5 of the PGI compilers. Older versions are not supported as they
do not allow line level profiling.
DDT has been tested with Portland Tools 9 onwards.
Known issues: Included files in Fortran 90 generate incorrect debug information with respect to file and
line information. The information gives line numbers which refer to line numbers from the included file
but give the including file as the file.
The PGI compiler may emit incorrect line number information for templated C++ functions or omit it
entirely. This may cause DDT to show your program on a different line to the one expected, and also
mean that breakpoints may not function as expected.
The PGI compiler does not emit the correct debugging tags for proper support of inheritance in C++,
which prevents viewing of base class members.
When using memory debugging with statically linked PGI executables (-Bstatic) because of the in-
built ordering of library linkage for F77/F90, you will need to add a localrc file to your PGI installation
which defines the correct linkage when using DDT and (static) memory debugging. To your {pgi-
path}/bin/localrc append the following:
switch -Bstaticddt is
help(Link for DDT memory debugging with static binding)
helpgroup(linker)
append(LDARGS=--eh-frame-hdr –z muldefs)
append(LDARGS=-Bstatic)
append(LDARGS=-L{DDT-Install-Path}/lib/64)
set(CRTL=$if(-Bstaticddt,-ldmallocthcxx -lc -lns$(PREFIX)c
-l$(PREFIX)c, -lc -lns$(PREFIX)c -l$(PREFIX)c))
set(LC=$if(-Bstaticddt,-ldmallocthcxx -lgcc -lgcc_eh -lc -lgcc
-lgcc_eh -lc, -lgcc -lc -lgcc));
pgf90 -help will now list -Bstaticddt as a compilation flag. You should now use that flag for
memory debugging with static linking.
This does not affect the default method of using PGI and memory debugging, which is to use dynamic
libraries.
Note that some versions of ld (notably in SLES 9 and 10) silently ignore the --eh-frame-hdr argu-
ment in the above configuration, and a full stack for F90 allocated memory will not be shown in DDT.
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You can work around this limitation by replacing the system ld, or by including a more recent ld earlier
in your path. This does not affect memory debugging in C/C++.
When you pass an array splice as an argument to a subroutine that has an assumed shape array argument,
the offset of the array splice is currently ignored by DDT. Please contact support@allinea.com if this
affects you.
DDT may show extra symbols for pointers to arrays and some other types. For example if your program
uses the variable ialloc2d then the symbol ialloc2d$sd may also be displayed. The extra symbols
are added by the compiler and may be ignored.
The Portland compiler also wraps F90 allocations in a compiler-handled allocation area, rather than di-
rectly using the systems memory allocation libraries directly for each allocate statement. This means that
bounds protection (Guard Pages) cannot function correctly with this compiler.
For information concerning the Portland Accelerator model and debugging this with DDT, please see the
14 DDT: CUDA GPU Debugging of this userguide.
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D
Platform Notes and Known Issues
This page notes any particular issues affecting platforms. If a supported machine is not listed on this
page, it is because there is no known issue.
D.1
GNU/Linux Systems
D.1.1
General
When using a 64-bit Linux please note that it is essential to use the 64-bit version of DDT/MAP on this
platform. This applies regardless of whether the debugged program is 32-bit or 64-bit.
POSIX thread cancellation does not work when running under a debugger. This is because the 'signal
info' associated with a signal is lost when the signal is intercepted and resent by the debugger, causing
the cancellation request to be ignored by the receiving thread.
More generally the 'signal info' associated with a signal is not available when running under a debug-
ger.
Some 64-bit GNU/Linux systems which have a bug in the GNU C library (specifically libthread -
db.so.1) which can crash the debugger when debugging multi-threaded programs. Check with your
Linux distribution for a fix. As a workaround you can try compiling your program as a statically linked
executable using the -static compiler flag.
For the ARM architecture – breakpoints can be unreliable and will randomly be passed without stopping
for some multicore processors (including the NVIDIA Tegra 2) unless a kernel option (fix) is built-in.
The required kernel option is:
CONFIG_ARM_ERRATA_720789=y
This option is not present by default in many kernel builds.
D.1.2
SUSE Linux
There is a known issue with SUSE 11 which may cause you to experience a crash similar to this
Other: *** glibc detected *** /home/user/wave_c: free(): invalid
pointer: 0x00007ffff7e02a80 ***
Other: ======= Backtrace: =========
Other: /lib64/libc.so.6[0x7fffeef81118]
Other: /lib64/libc.so.6(cfree+0x76)[0x7fffeef82c76]
Other: /lib64/libnss_nis.so.2(_nss_nis_getpwuid_r+0xe9)[0
x7fffecd4f089]
Other: /lib64/libnss_compat.so.2[0x7fffed125ab8]
The implementation of libnss nis.so.2 attempts to resolve symbol names using its direct depen-
dencies before using the global namespace. This causes the libc implementation of, for example, free
to be linked instead of the intended libdmalloc implementation.
If you encounter this crash, then the only solution is to disable memory debugging and contact SUSE
about the availability of a fix.
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D.2
IBM AIX Systems
MAP is not supported on AIX.
The Step Threads Together and Focus on Thread features are unavailable on AIX due to a lack of operating
system support.
When stepping through certain system library calls the program may run freely instead. This is presently
known to occur with the memset library call, for example. This is due to a limitation of AIX.
A sample Loadleveller script, which starts debugging jobs on IBM AIX (POE) systems is included in the
{installation-directory}/templates directory.
The stop on fork and stop on exec feature is not supported on this platform.
D.3
IBM Blue Gene/Q
MAP is not supported on Blue Gene.
DDT must be installed in a directory that is visible from the front end node(s), the service nodes and the
I/O nodes.
Attaching to running processes is not currently supported on this platform.
Message queues are not currently supported on this platform.
D.4
Intel Xeon Phi
D.4.1
Requirements
MPSS Minimum Version
DDT
2.1.4982-15
Offload Support (DDT)
2.1.6720-13
MAP
2.1.6720-19
Important: All Intel MPSS 3.1 and 3.2 releases at the time of writing suffer from a serious issue which
prevents debugging offload programs. The recommend workaround from Intel is to copy the debug
information for the system libraries to the Xeon Phi card:
[host]
$ scp -r /opt/mpss/3.1.2/sysroots/k1om-mpss-linux/lib64/.debug
root@mic0:/lib64/
Please contact Allinea for up to date information.
D.4.2
Installation
To debug or profile programs running on Intel Xeon Phi cards you need to download and install the
relevant combined host and Xeon Phi installation tarball for your host machine.
The Allinea Tools installation for the Xeon Phi card must be accessible from the Xeon Phi card itself,
either using NFS (recommended) or a filesystem overlay (not recommended as it reduces the available
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memory).
See also the section E.9.7 MAP harmless error messages in Xeon Phi.
Note: Your existing licence may not support debugging on the Intel Xeon Phi card. If you have the
coprocessor option in your licence please contact Allinea for a free upgrade.
D.4.3
Configuration
DDT
MAP
Native Xeon Phi non-MPI Programs
remote
remote
Native Xeon Phi Intel MPI Programs
remote
remote
Native Xeon Phi Cray MPT Programs
GUI / offline
GUI / offline
Heterogeneous Intel MPI Programs
GUI / offline
GUI / offline
Heterogeneous Cray MPT Programs
GUI / offline
GUI / offline
Heterogeneous Programs (#pragma offload)
GUI / offline
GUI / offline
Native Xeon Phi non-MPI Programs
Debugging
Note: The DDT GUI can not run on the Xeon Phi card directly.
To debug a native Xeon Phi non-MPI program:
1. Start DDT on the host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Click the Remote Launch drop-down on the Welcome Page and select Configure...
3. Enter the host name of the Xeon Phi card (e.g. micdev-mic0) in the Host Name box.
4. Select the path to the Xeon Phi installation of DDT in the Installation Directory box.
5. Click Test Remote Launch and ensure the settings are correct.
6. Click Ok.
7. Click Run and Debug a Program on the Welcome Page.
8. Select a native Xeon Phi program in the Application box in the Run window.
9. Click Run.
Profiling
To profile a native Xeon Phi non-MPI program:
1. Start MAP on the host (using the host installation of MAP).
2. Click the Remote Launch drop-down on the Welcome Page and select Configure...
3. Enter the host name of the Xeon Phi card (e.g. micdev-mic0) in the Host Name box.
4. Select the path to the Xeon Phi installation of MAP in the Installation Directory box.
5. Click Test Remote Launch and ensure the settings are correct.
6. Click Ok.
7. Click Profile a program on the Welcome Page.
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8. Select your native Xeon Phi MPI program in the Application box in the Run window.
9. Click Run.
Native Xeon Phi Intel MPI Programs
Debugging
Note: The DDT GUI can not run on the Xeon Phi card directly.
To debug a native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program:
1. Start DDT on the host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Click the Remote Launch drop-down on the Welcome Page and select Configure...
3. Enter the host name of the Xeon Phi card (e.g. micdev-mic0) in the Host Name box.
4. Select the path to the Xeon Phi installation of DDT in the Installation Directory box.
5. Click Test Remote Launch and ensure the settings are correct.
6. Click Ok.
7. Click Run and Debug a Program on the Welcome Page.
8. Select a native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program in the Application box in the Run window.
• DDT should have detected 'Intel MPI (MPMD)' as the MPI implementation in File Options
(DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) → System.
9. Click Run.
Profiling
To profile a native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program:
1. Ensure the Intel Compilers and MPI are in your path.
2. Start MAP on the host (using the host installation of MAP).
3. Click the Remote Launch drop-down on the Welcome Page and select Configure...
4. Enter the host name of the Xeon Phi card (e.g. micdev-mic0) in the Host Name box.
5. Select the path to the Xeon Phi installation of MAP in the Installation Directory box.
6. Click Test Remote Launch and ensure the settings are correct.
7. Click Ok.
8. Click Profile a program on the Welcome Page.
9. Select your native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program in the Application box in the Run window.
• MAP should have detected 'Intel MPI (MPMD)' as the MPI implementation in File Op-
tions (MAP Preferences on Mac OS X) → System.
10. Click Run.
Native Xeon Phi Cray MPT Programs
Debugging
Note: The DDT GUI can not run on the Xeon Phi card directly.
To debug a native Xeon Phi Cray MPT program:
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1. Start DDT on the login node or host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Open the Options window: File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) .
3. Select Intel MPI (MPMD) as the MPI Implementation on the System page.
4. Check the Heterogeneous system support check box on the System page.
5. Click Run and Debug a Program on the Welcome Page.
6. Select a native Xeon Phi Cray MPT program in the Application box in the Run window.
• DDT should have detected 'Cray MPT' as the MPI implementation in File Options (DDT
Preferences on Mac OS X) → System.
7. Add the -k argument to the aprun Arguments box.
8. Click Run.
Profiling
To profile a native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program:
1. Start MAP on the login node or host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Open the Options window: File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) .
3. Select Intel MPI (MPMD) as the MPI Implementation on the System page.
4. Check the Heterogeneous system support check box on the System page.
5. Click Profile a program on the Welcome Page.
6. Select your native Xeon Phi Cray MPT program in the Application box in the Run window.
• MAP should have detected 'Cray MPT' as the MPI implementation in File Options (MAP
Preferences on Mac OS X) → System.
7. Add the -k argument to the aprun Arguments box.
8. Click Run.
Heterogeneous (host + Xeon Phi) Intel MPI Programs
Debugging
To debug a heterogeneous (host + Xeon Phi) Intel MPI program:
1. Start DDT on the host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Open the Options window: File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) .
3. Select Intel MPI (MPMD) as the MPI Implementation on the System page.
4. Check the Heterogeneous system support check box on the System page.
5. Click Ok.
6. Click Run and Debug a Program in the Welcome Page.
7. Select the path to the host executable in the Application box in the Run window.
8. Enter an MPMD style mpiexeccommand line in the mpiexec Arguments box, e.g.
-np 8 -host micdev /home/user/examples/hello-host : -np 32 -
host micdev-mic0 /home/user/examples/hello-mic
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9. Set Number of processes to be the total number of processes launched on both the host and Xeon
Phi (e.g. 40 for the above mpiexec Arguments line).
10. Add I_MPI_MIC=enable to the Environment Variables box.
11. Click Run. You may need to wait a minute for the Xeon Phi processes to connect.
Profiling
To profile a native Xeon Phi Intel MPI program:
1. Open the Options window: File Options (MAP Preferences on Mac OS X) .
2. Select Intel MPI (MPMD) as the MPI Implementation on the System page.
3. Check the Heterogeneous system support check box on the System page.
4. Click Ok.
5. Click Run and Debug a Program in the Welcome Page.
6. Select the path to the host executable in the Application box in the Run window.
7. Enter an MPMD style mpiexeccommand line in the mpiexec Arguments box, e.g.
-np 8 -host micdev /home/user/examples/wave-host : -np 32 -
host micdev-mic0 /home/user/examples/wave-xeon-phi
8. Set Number of processes to be the total number of processes launched on both the host and Xeon
Phi (e.g. 40 for the above mpiexec Arguments line).
9. Add I_MPI_MIC=enable to the Environment Variables box.
10. Click Run. You may need to wait a minute for the Xeon Phi processes to connect.
Heterogeneous Programs (#pragma offload)
Intel recommend setting the following environment variables before debugging offload programs:
COI_SEP_DISABLE=FALSE
AMPLXE_COI_DEBUG_SUPPORT=TRUE
MYO_WATCHDOG_MONITOR=-1
The OFFLOAD_MAIN environment must be unset, or set to on_offload or on_offload_all when
debugging offload programs in DDT. If OFFLOAD_MAIN is set to on_start then DDT will not attach
to the offloading host processes.
Memory debugging is not supported for programs that use #pragma offload.
Debugging
When debugging offloaded code (i.e. code offloaded to the Xeon phi using #pragma offload) DDT
can automatically attach to the offload process running on the Xeon Phi Card.
To debug a heterogeneous program that uses #pragma offload:
1. Start DDT on the host (using the host installation of DDT).
2. Open the Options window: File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) .
3. Select Intel MPI (MPMD) as the MPI Implementation on the System page.
4. Check the Heterogeneous system support check box on the System page.
5. Click Ok.
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6. Ensure Control Default Breakpoints Stop on Xeon Phi offload is checked.
7. Click Run and Debug a Program on the Welcome Page.
8. Select a heterogeneous program that uses #pragma offload in the Application box in the Run
window.
9. Click Run.
Profiling
MAP does not support profiling of offloaded code (i.e. code offloaded to the Xeon phi using #pragma
offload). The host portion of the program may be profiled as normal.
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E
General Troubleshooting and Known Issues
If you have any problems with DDT or MAP, please take a look at the topics in this section – you might
just find the answer you're looking for. Equally, it's worth checking the support pages of http://www.
allinea.com and making sure you have the latest version.
E.1
General Troubleshooting
E.1.1
Problems Starting the GUI
If the GUI is unable to start this is usually due to one of three reasons:
• Cannot connect to an X server. If you are running on a remote machine, make sure that your
DISPLAY variable is set appropriately and that you can run simple X applications such as xterm
from the same command-line.
• The licence file is invalid – in this case the software will issue an error message. You should verify
that you have a licence file for the correct product in the licence directory and check that the date
inside it is still valid. If DDT/MAP still refuses to start, please contact Allinea.
• You are using a licence server, but DDT/MAP cannot connect to it. See the section 25 The Licence
Server for more information on troubleshooting these problems.
E.1.2
Problems Reading this document
If when pressing F1 a blank screen appears instead of this document, there may be corrupt files that are
preventing the documentation system (Qt Assistant) from starting. You can resolve this by removing the
stale files, which are found in $HOME/.local/share/data/Allinea.
E.2
Starting a Program
E.2.1
Problems Starting Scalar Programs
There are a number of possible sources for problems. The most common is – for users with a multi-
process licence – that the Run Without MPI Support check box has not been checked. If the software
reports a problem with MPI and you know your program is not using MPI, then this is usually the cause.
If you HAVE checked this box and the software still mentions MPI then we would very much like to hear
from you!
Other potential problems are:
• A previous DDT/MAP session is still running, or has not released resources required for the new
session. Usually this can be resolved by killing stale processes. The most obvious symptom of this
is a delay of approximately 60 seconds and a message stating that not all processes connected. You
may also see, in the terminal, a QServerSocket message
• The target program does not exist or is not executable
• DDT/MAP's backend daemon – ddt-debugger – is missing from the bin directory – in this
case you should check your installation, and contact Allinea for further assistance.
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E.2.2
Problems Starting Multi-Process Programs
If you encounter problems whilst starting an MPI program, the first step is to establish that it is possible
to run a single-process (non-MPI) program such as a trivial "Hello, World!" - and resolve such issues that
may arise. After this, attempt to run a multi-process job – and the symptoms will often allow a reasonable
diagnosis to be made.
In the first instance, verify that MPI is installed correctly by running a job outside of DDT/MAP, such as
the example in the examples directory.
mpirun -np 8 ./a.out
Verify that mpirunis in the PATH, or the environment variable DDT_MPIRUN/MAP_MPIRUN is set to
the full pathname of mpirun.
If the progress bar does not report that at least process 0 has connected, then the remote ddt-debugger
daemons cannot be started or cannot connect to the GUI.
Sometimes problems are caused by environment variables not propagating to the remote nodes whilst
starting a job. To a large extent, the solution to these problems depend on the MPI implementation that
is being used. In the simplest case, for rsh based systems such as a default MPICH 1 installation, correct
configuration can be verified by rsh-ing to a node and examining the environment. It is worthwhile rsh-
ing with the env command to the node as this will not see any environment variables set inside the .profile
command. For example if your nodes use a .profile instead of a .bashrc for each user then you
may well see a different output when running rsh node env than when you run rsh node and then
run env inside the new shell.
If only one, or very few, processes connect, it may be because you have not chosen the correct MPI
implementation. Please examine the list and look carefully at the options. Should no other suitable MPI
be found, please contact Allinea for advice.
If a large number of processes are reported by the status bar to have connected, then it is possible that
some have failed to start due to resource exhaustion, timing out, or, unusually, an unexplained crash. You
should verify again that MPI is still working, as some MPI distributions do not release all semaphore
resources correctly (for example MPICH 1 on Redhat with SMP support built in).
To check for time-out problems, set the MAP/DDT_NO_TIMEOUT environment variable to 1 before
launching the GUI and see if further progress is made. This is not a solution, but aids the diagnosis. If
all processes now start, please contact Allinea for further long-term advice.
E.2.3
No Shared Home Directory
If your home directory is not accessible by all the nodes in your cluster then your jobs may fail to start.
To resolve the problem open the file
/.allinea/config.system in a text editor. Change the
shared directory option in the [startup] section so it points to a directory that is available and
shared by all the nodes. If no such directory exists, change the use session cookies option to no
instead.
E.2.4
DDT/MAP says it can't find your hosts or the executable
This can happen when attempting to attach to a process running on other machines. Ensure that the
host name(s) that DDT/MAP complains about are reachable using ping. If DDT/MAP fails to find the
executable, ensure that it is available in the same directory on every machine. See section 24.4 Connecting
to remote programs (remote-exec) for more information on configuring access to remote machines.
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E.2.5
The progress bar doesn't move and DDT/MAP 'times out'
It's possible that the program ddt-debugger hasn't been started by mpirunor has aborted. You can
log onto your nodes and confirm this by looking at the process list before clicking Ok when DDT/MAP
times out. Ensure ddt-debugger has all the libraries it needs and that it can run successfully on the
nodes using mpirun.
Alternatively, there may be one or more processes (ddt-debugger, mpirun, rsh) which could not
be terminated. This can happen if DDT/MAP is killed during its startup or due to MPI implementation
issues. You will have to kill the processes manually, using ps x to get the process ids and then kill or
kill -9 to terminate them.
This issue can also arise for mpich-p4mpd, and the solution is explained in Appendix B MPI Distribu-
tion Notes and Known Issues.
If your intended mpiruncommand is not in your PATH, you may either add it to your PATH or set
the environment variable DDT_MPIRUN/MAP_MPIRUN to contain the full pathname of the correct
mpirun.
If your home directory is not accessible by all the nodes in your cluster then your jobs may fail to start in
this fashion. See section E.2.3 No Shared Home Directory.
E.2.6
The progress bar gets close to half the processes connecting and
then stops and DDT/MAP 'times out'
This is likely to be caused by a dual-processor configured MPI distribution. Make sure you have selected
smp-mpich or scyld as your MPI implementation in the Options window. If this doesn't help, see Appendix
B MPI Distribution Notes and Known Issues for a workaround and email support@allinea.com for
further assistance.
E.3
Attaching
E.3.1
The system does not allow attaching to processes (Ubuntu)
The Ubuntu ptrace scope control feature does not allow a process to attach to other processes it did not
launch directly (see http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Security/Features#ptrace for details).
To disable this feature until the next reboot run the following command:
echo 0 | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope
To disable it permanently add this line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
kernel.yama.ptrace_scope = 0
(this will take effect after the next reboot)
E.3.2
The system does not allow attaching to processes (Fedora, Red
Hat)
The deny ptrace boolean in SELinux (used by Fedora and Red Hat) does not allow a process to attach
to other processes it did not launch directly (see http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Features/SELinuxDenyPtrace
for details).
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To disable this feature until the next reboot run the following command:
setsebool deny_ptrace 0
To disable it permanently run this command:
setsebool -P deny_ptrace 0
E.3.3
Running processes don't show up in the attach window
This is usually a problem with either your remote-exec script or your node list file. First check that
the entry in your node list file corresponds with either localhost (if you're running on your local machine)
or with the output of hostname on the desired machine.
Secondly try running /path/to/allinea-tools/libexec/remote-exec manually ie. /path/
to/allinea-tools/libexec/remote-exec<hostname>ls and check the output of this. If
this fails then there is a problem with your remote-exec script. If rsh is still being used in your
script check that you can rsh to the desired machine. Otherwise check that you can attach to your ma-
chine in the way specified in the remote-exec script. (See also 24.4 Connecting to remote programs
(remote-exec)) If you still experience problems with your script then contact Allinea for assistance.
E.4
Source Viewer
E.4.1
No variables or line number information
You should compile your programs with debug information included, this flag is usually –g.
E.4.2
Source code does not appear when you start DDT / MAP
If you cannot see any text at all, perhaps the default selected font is not installed on your system. Go to
File Options (DDT Preferences on Mac OS X) and choose a fixed width font such as Courier and
you should now be able to see the code.
If you see a screen of text telling you that DDT / MAP could not find your source files, follow the instruc-
tions given. If you still cannot see your source code, check that the code is available on the same machine
as you are running the software on, and that the correct file and directory permissions are set. If some files
are missing, and others found, try adding source directories and rescanning for further instruction.
If the problem persists, contact support@allinea.com .
E.5
Input/Output
E.5.1
Output to stderr is not displayed
DDT / MAP automatically captures anything written to stdout / stderr and displays it. Some shells
(such as csh) do not support this feature in which case you may see your stderr mixed with stdout,
or you may not see it at all. In any case we strongly recommend writing program output to files instead,
since the MPI specification does not cover stdout / stderr behaviour.
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E.6
Controlling a Program
E.6.1
Program jumps forwards and backwards when stepping through
it
If you have compiled with any sort of optimisations, the compiler will shuffle your programs instructions
into a more efficient order. This is what you are seeing. We always recommend compiling with -O0
when debugging, which disables this behaviour and other optimisations.
If you are using the Intel OpenMP compiler, then the compiler will generate code that appears to jump in
and out of the parallel blocks regardless of your -O0 setting. Stepping inside parallel blocks is therefore
not recommended for the faint-hearted!
E.6.2
DDT sometimes stop responding when using the Step Threads To-
gether option
DDT may stop responding if a thread exits when the Step Threads Together option is enabled. This is
most likely to occur on Linux platforms using NPTL threads. This might happen if you tried to Play to
here to a line that was never reached – in which case your program ran all the way to the end and then
exited.
A workaround is to set a breakpoint at the last statement executed by the thread and turn off Step Threads
Together when the thread stops at the breakpoint. If this problem affects you please contact support@allinea.com
.
E.7
Evaluating Variables
E.7.1
Some variables cannot be viewed when the program is at the start
of a function
Some compilers produce faulty debug information, forcing DDT to enter a function during the prologue
or the variable may not yet be in scope. In this region, which appears to be the first line of the function,
some variables have not been initialised yet. To view all the variables with their correct values, it may be
necessary to play or step to the next line of the function.
E.7.2
Incorrect values printed for Fortran array
Pointers to non-contiguous array blocks (allocatable arrays using strides) are not supported. If this issue
affects you, please email support@allinea.com for a workaround or fix. There are also many compiler
limitations that can cause this. See Appendix C for details.
E.7.3
Evaluating an array of derived types, containing multiple-dimension
arrays
The Locals, Current Line and Evaluate views may not show the contents of these multi-dimensional
arrays inside an array of derived types. However, you can view the contents of the array by clicking on
its name and dragging it into the evaluate window as an item on its own, or by using the MDA
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E.7.4
C++ STL types are not pretty printed
The pretty printers provided with Allinea DDT are compatible with GNU compilers, and Intel C++ ver-
sion 12 and above.
E.7.5
The Fortran Module Browser is missing
Not all platforms support every feature that DDT has and so they are disabled by removing the window/tab
by from DDT's interface. The Fortran modules browser is not supported on AIX.
E.8
Memory Debugging
E.8.1
The View Pointer Details window says a pointer is valid but doesn't
show you which line of code it was allocated on
The Pathscale compilers have known issues that can cause this – please see the compiler notes in section
C of this appendix for more details.
The Intel compiler may need the -fp argument to allow you to see stack traces on some machines.
If this happens with another compiler, please contact support@allinea.com with the vendor and version
number of your compiler.
E.8.2
mprotect fails error when using memory debugging with guard
pages
This can happen if your program makes more than 32768 allocations – a limit in the kernel prevents
DDT from allocating more protected regions than this. You can set this limit manually by logging in as
root and executing echo 1048576 >/proc/sys/vm/max map count, or another limit of your
choice.
E.8.3
Allocations made before or during MPI Init show up in Current
Memory Usage but have no associated stack back trace
Memory allocations that are made before or during MPI_Init appear in Current Memory Usage along
with any allocations made afterwards. However the call stack at the time of the allocation is not recorded
for these allocations and will not show up in the Current Memory Usage window.
E.8.4
Deadlock when calling printf or malloc from a signal handler
The memory allocation library calls (e.g. malloc) provided by the memory debugging library are not
async-signal-safe unlike the implementations in recent versions of the GNU C library.
POSIX does not require malloc to be async-signal-safe but some programs may expect this behaviour.
For example a program that calls printf from a signal handler may deadlock when memory debugging
is enabled in DDT since the C library implementation of printf may call malloc.
The web page below has a table of the functions that may be safely called from an asynchronous signal
handler:
http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/xsh_chap02_04.html#tag_02_04_03/
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E.8.5
Program runs more slowly with Memory Debugging enabled
The Memory Debugging library performs more checks than the normal runtime's memory allocation
routines – that's what makes it a debugging library! However those checks also makes it slower. If your
program is running too slow when Memory Debugging is enabled there are a number of options you can
change to speed it up.
Firstly try reducing the Heap Debugging option to a lower setting (e.g. if it is currently on High, try
changing it to Medium or Low).
You can increase the heap check interval from the default of 100 to a higher value. The heap check interval
controls how many allocations may occur between full checks of the heap (which may take some time).
A higher setting (1000 or above) is recommended if your program allocates and deallocates memory very
frequently (e.g. inside a computation loop).
You can disable the Store backtraces for memory allocations option, at the expense of losing backtraces
in the View Pointer Details and Current Memory Usage windows.
E.9
MAP specific issues
E.9.1
My compiler is inlining functions
Yes, they do that. Unfortunately their abilities to include sufficient information to reconstruct the original
call tree vary between vendors. We've found that the following flags work best:
• Intel: -g -O3 -fno-inline-functions
• PGI: -g -Mprof=func -O3
• GNU: -g -O3 -fno-inline
Be aware that some compilers may still inline functions even when explicitly asked not to.
There is typically some small performance penalty for disabling function inlining or enabling profiling
information; depending on your code you may see around an 8% slowdown with the PGI compiler's
-Mprof=func option, for example.
Alternatively, you can let the compiler inline the functions and just compile with -g -O3. Or -g -O5 or
whatever your preferred performance flags are. MAP will work just fine, but you will often see time
inside an inlined function being attributed to its parent in the Stacks and Project Files views. The Source
Code view should be largely unaffected.
E.9.2
MPI Wrapper Libraries
Unlike DDT, MAP needs to wrap MPI calls in a custom shared library. We build one, just for your
system, each time you run MAP. Sometimes it won't work. If it doesn't, please tell us. It should work on
every system we've ever seen, first time, every time. In the meantime, you can also try setting MPICC
directly:
$ MPICC=my-mpicc-command bin/map -n 16 ./wave_c
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E.9.3
I'm not getting enough samples
By default MAP samples every 20ms, but if you get warnings about too few samples on a fast run, or want
more detail in the results, you can change that. To increase the frequency to every 10ms set environment
variable MAP_INTERVAL=10.
E.9.4
I just see main (external code) and nothing else
This can happen if you compile without -g. It can also happen if you move the executable out of the direc-
tory it was compiled in. Tell us if it's happened to you; in the meantime check your compile line includes
-g and try right-clicking on the Project Files panel in MAP and choosing "Add Source Directory..."
E.9.5
MAP is reporting time spent in a function definition
Any overheads involved in setting up a function call (pushing arguments to the stack etc) are usually
assigned to the function definition. Some compilers may assign them to the opening brace '{' and clos-
ing brace '}' instead. If this function has been inlined, the situation becomes further complicated and
any setup time (e.g. allocating space for arrays) is often assigned to the definition line of the enclosing
function.
We're looking for ways to unravel this and present a more intuitive picture; any ideas or suggestions are
much appreciated!
E.9.6
MAP is not correctly identifying vectorized instructions
The instructions MAP identifies as vectorized (packed) are enumerated below. We also identify the AVX-
2 variants of these instructions (with a “v” prefix). Contact support@allinea.com if you believe your
code contains vectorized instructions that have not been listed and are not being identified in the CPU
floating-point/integer vector metrics.
Packed floating-point instructions: addpd addps addsubpd addsubps andnpd and-
nps
andpd
andps
divpd
divps
dppd
dpps
haddpd
haddps
hsubpd
hsubps
maxpd maxps minpd minps mulpd mulps rcpps rsqrtps sqrtpd sqrtps subpd
subps
Packed integer instructions: mpsadbw pabsb pabsd pabsw paddb paddd paddq paddsb
paddsw paddusb paddusw paddw palignr pavgb pavgw phaddd phaddsw phaddw
phminposuw phsubd phsubsw phsubw pmaddubsw pmaddwd pmaxsb pmaxsd pmaxsw
pmaxub pmaxud pmaxuw pminsb pminsd pminsw pminub pminud pminuw pmuldq
pmulhrsw
pmulhuw
pmulhw
pmulld
pmullw
pmuludq
pshufb
pshufw
psignb
psignd psignw pslld psllq psllw psrad psraw psrld psrlq psrlw psubb
psubd psubq psubsb psubsw psubusb psubusw psubw
E.9.7
MAP harmless error messages in Xeon Phi
When running MAP on a Xeon Phi host, where the MAP installation has been configured for D.4 Intel
Xeon Phi heterogeneous support, but your MPI program was compiled without MIC options, you may
see harmless 'ERROR' messages similar to the following:
Other: ERROR: ld.so: object '/home/user/.allinea/wrapper/libmap-sampler-pmpi-mic3-mic-115427.so'
from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
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These may be safely ignored.
E.9.8
MAP takes an extremely long time to gather and analyze my OpenBLAS-
linked application
OpenBLAS versions 0.2.8 and earlier incorrectly stripped symbols from the .symtab section of the library,
causing binary analysis tools such as Allinea MAP and objdump to see invalid function lengths and
addresses.
This causes Allinea MAP to take an extremely long time disassembling and analyzing apparently over-
lapping functions containing millions of instructions.
A fix for this was accepted into the OpenBLAS codebase on October 8th 2013 and versions 0.2.9 and
above should not be affected.
To work around this problem without updating OpenBLAS, simply run “strip libopenblas*.so” - this
removes the incomplete .symtab section without affecting the operation or linkage of the library.
E.10
Obtaining Support
If this guide hasn't helped you, then the most effective way to get support is to email us with a detailed
report. If possible, you should obtain a log file for the problem and email this to support@allinea.com
.
You can generate a log file by running DDT/MAP like this:
ddt –debug –log ddt.log (for < 100 processes)
map –debug –log map.log (for < 100 processes)
or this:
ddt –log ddt.log (for > 100 processes)
map –log map.log (for > 100 processes)
Then simply reproduce the problem using as few processors and commands as possible and close the
program as usual. On some systems this file might be quite large; if this is the case, please compress it
using a program such as gzip or bzip2 before attaching it to your email.
If your problem can only be replicated on large process counts, then please do not use the -debug option
as this will generate very large log files – it will usually be sufficient to just use the -log option.
If you are connecting to a remote system, then the log file is generated on the remote host and copied back
to the client when the connection is closed. The copy will not happen if the target application crashes or
the network connection is lost. In these cases, the remote copy of the log file can be found in the tmp
subdirectory of the Allinea configuration directory for the remote user account (which is /.allinea,
unless overridden by the DDTCONFIGDIR environment variable).
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F
Queue Template Script Syntax
F.1
Queue Template Tags
Each of the tags that will be replaced is listed in the following table – and an example of the text that will
be generated when DDT/MAP submits your job is given for each.
Note: It is often sufficient to simply use AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG. See section 24.3.1 The Template Script
for an example.
Tag
Description
After Submission Example
AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG
This tag expands to the entire
ddt-mpirun -np 4 myex-
replacement for your 'mpirun'
ample.bin
command line.
DDTPATH_TAG
The path to the DDT/MAP in-
/opt/allinea
stallation
WORKING_DIRECTORY_TAG
The
working
directory
/users/ned
DDT/MAP
was
launched
in
NUM_PROCS_TAG
Total number of processes
16
NUM_PROCS_PLUS_ONE_
Total number of processes + 1
17
TAG
NUM_NODES_TAG
Number of compute nodes
8
NUM_NODES_PLUS_ONE_
Number of compute nodes + 1
9
TAG
PROCS_PER_NODE_TAG
Processes per node
2
PROCS_PER_NODE_PLUS_
Processes per node + 1
3
ONE_TAG
NUM_THREADS_TAG
Number of OpenMP threads per
4
node (empty if OpenMP if “off”)
OMP_NUM_THREADS_TAG
Number of OpenMP threads per
4
node (empty if OpenMP is “off”)
MPIRUN_TAG
mpirun binary (can vary with
/usr/bin/mpirun
MPI implementation)
AUTO_MPI_ARGUMENTS_
Required command line flags for
-np 4
TAG
mpirun (can vary with MPI im-
plementation)
EXTRA_MPI_ARGUMENTS_
Additional mpirun arguments
-partition DEBUG
TAG
specified in the Run window
PROGRAM_TAG
Target path and filename
/users/ned/a.out
PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
Arguments to target program
-myarg myval
INPUT_FILE_TAG
The stdin file specified in the
/users/ned/input.dat
Run window
Additionally, any environment variables in the GUI environment ending in TAG are replaced throughout
the script by the value of those variables.
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F.2
Defining New Tags
As well as the pre-defined tags listed in the table above you can also define new tags in your template
script whose values can be specified in the GUI.
Tag definitions have the following format:
EXAMPLE_TAG: { key1=value1, key2=value2, ... }
Where key1, key2, … are attribute names and value1, value2, … are the corresponding val-
ues.
The tag will be replaced wherever it occurs with the value specified in the GUI, for example:
#PBS –option EXAMPLE_TAG
The following attributes are supported:
Attribute
Purpose
Example
type
text: general text input se-
type=text
lect: select from two or more
options check: a boolean op-
tion file:
file name num-
ber: real number integer:
integer number
label
The label for the user interface
label=”Account”
widget.
default
Default value for this tag
default=”interactive”
text type
mask
Input mask 0: ASCII digit per-
mask=”09:09:09”
mitted but not required.
9:
ASCII digit required. 0-9. N:
ASCII alphanumeric character
required.
A-Z, a-z, 0-9.
n:
ASCII alphanumeric character
permitted but not required.
options type
options
Options to use, separated by the
options=”not -
| character
shared|shared”
check type
checked
Value of a check tag if checked.
checked=”enabled”
unchecked
Value
of
a
check
tag
if
unchecked=”enabled”
unchecked.
integer and number types
min
Minimum value.
min=”0”
max
Maximum value.
max=”100”
step
Amount to step by when the up
step=”1”
or down arrows are clicked.
decimals
Number of decimal places.
decimals=”2”
suffix
Display only suffix (will not be
suffix=”s”
included in tag value).
prefix
Display only prefix (will not be
prefix=”$”
included in tag value).
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file type
mode
open-file: an existing file
mode=”open-file”
save-file: a new or existing
file existing-directory:
an existing directory open-
files: one or more existing
files, separated by spaces
caption
Window caption for file chooser.
caption=”Select File”
dir
Initial directory for file chooser.
dir=”/work/output”
filter
Restrict the files displayed in the
filter=”Text
files
file chooser to a certain file pat-
(*.txt)”
tern.
Examples
# JOB_TYPE_TAG: {type=select,options=parallel| \
serial,label="Job Type",default=parallel}
# WALL_CLOCK_LIMIT_TAG: {type=text,label="Wall Clock Limit", \
default="00:30:00",mask="09:09:09"}
# NODE_USAGE_TAG: {type=select,options=not_shared| \
shared,label="Node Usage",default=not_shared}
# ACCOUNT_TAG: {type=text,label="Account",global}
See the template files in {installation-directory} /templates for more examples.
To specify values for these tags click the Edit Template Variables button on the Job Submission Options
page (See Figure 101 Queuing Systems above) or the Run window. You will see a window similar to the
one below:
Figure 102: Queue Parameters Window
The values you specify are substituted for the corresponding tags in the template file when you run a
job.
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F.3
Specifying Default Options
A queue template file may specify defaults for the options on the Job Submission page so that when a
user selects the template file these options are automatically filled in.
Name
Job Submission Setting
Example
submit
Submit
command
qsub -n NUM NODES TAG -t
Note:
the
command
may
WALL CLOCK LIMIT TAG --
include tags.
mode script -A PROJECT TAG
display
Display command The output
qstat
from this command is shown
while waiting for a job to start.
job regexp
Job regexp
(\d+)
cancel
Cancel command
qdel JOB ID TAG
submit scalar
Also submit scalar jobs through
yes
the queue
show num procs
Number of processes: Specify in
yes
Run window
show num nodes
Number of nodes: Specify in
yes
Run Window
show procs per node
Processes per node: Specify in
yes
Run window
procs per node
Processes per node: Fixed
16
Example
# submit: qsub -n NUM_NODES_TAG -t WALL_CLOCK_LIMIT_TAG \
--mode script -A PROJECT_TAG
# display: qstat
# job regexp: (\d+)
# cancel: qdel JOB_ID_TAG
F.4
Launching
Ordinarily, your queue script will probably end in a line that starts mpirunwith your target executable.
In a template file, this needs to be modified to run a command that will also launch the DDT/MAP backend
agents.
Some methods to do this are mentioned in this section.
F.4.1
Using AUTO LAUNCH TAG
This is the easiest method, and caters for the majority of cases. Simply replace your mpiruncommand
line with AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG. DDT/MAP will replace this with a command appropriate for your con-
figuration (one command on a single line).
e.g. an mpirunline that looks like this:
mpirun -np 16 program_name myarg1 myarg2
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simply becomes:
AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG
AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG is roughly equivalent to:
DDT_MPIRUN_TAG DDT_DEBUGGER_ARGUMENTS_TAG \
MPI_ARGUMENTS_TAG PROGRAM_TAG ARGS_TAG
A typical expansion is:
/opt/allinea/tools/bin/ddt-mpirun --ddthost login1,192.168.0.191 \
--ddtport 4242 --ddtsession 1 \
--ddtsessionfile /home/user/.allinea/session/login1-1 \
--ddtshareddirectory /home/user --np 64 \–
npernode 4 myprogram arg1 arg2 arg3
F.4.2
Using ddt-mpirun
If you need more control than is available using AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG, DDT/MAP also provides a drop-
in mpirunreplacement that can be used to launch your job.
You should replace mpirunwith DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-mpirun. For example, if your script
currently has the line:
mpirun -np 16 program_name myarg1 myarg2
Then (for illustration only) the equivalent that DDT/MAP would need to use would be:
DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-mpirun -np 16 program_name myarg1 myarg2
For a template script you use tags in place of the program name, arguments etc. so they can be specified
in the GUI rather than editing the queue script each time:
DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-mpirun -np NUM_PROCS_TAG \
EXTRA_MPI_ARGUMENTS_TAG DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-debugger \
DDT_DEBUGGER_ARGUMENTS_TAG PROGRAM_TAG PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
See F.1 Queue Template Tags for more information on template tags.
F.4.3
MPICH 1 based MPI
If AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG or ddt-mpirun are not suitable, you can also use the following method for
MPICH 1 based MPIs.
If your mpiruncommand line looks like:
mpirun -np 16 program_name myarg1 myarg2
You need to export the TOTALVIEW environment variable, and add the -tv parameter to mpirun.
e.g.
export TOTALVIEW=DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-debugger-mps
MPIRUN_TAG -np NUM_PROCS_TAG \
-tv PROGRAM_TAG PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
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F.4.4
Scalar Programs
If AUTO_LAUNCH_TAG isn't suitable, you can also use the following method to launch scalar jobs with
your template script:
DDTPATH_TAG/bin/ddt-client DDT_DEBUGGER_ARGUMENTS_TAG \
PROGRAM_TAG PROGRAM_ARGUMENTS_TAG
F.5
Using PROCS PER NODE TAG
Some queue systems allow you to specify the number of processes, others require you to select the number
of nodes and the number of processes per node. The software caters for both of these but it is important
to know whether your template file and queue system expect to be told the number of processes (NUM_
PROCS_TAG) or the number of nodes and processes per node (NUM_NODES_TAG and PROCS_PER_
NODE_TAG). If these terms seem strange, see sample.qtf for an explanation of the queue template
system.
F.6
Job ID Regular Expression
The Regexp for job id regular expression is matched on the output from your submit command. The first
bracketed expression in the regular expression is used as the job ID. The elements listed in the table are
in addition to the conventional quantifiers, range and exclusion operators.
Element
Matches
C
A character represents itself
\t
A tab
.
Any character
\d
Any digit
\D
Any non-digit
\s
White space
\S
Non-white space
\w
Letters or numbers (a word character)
\W
Non-word character
For example, your submit program might return the output job id j1128 has been submitted
– one possible regular expression for retrieving the job id is id\s(.+)\shas.
If you would normally remove the job from the queue by typing job remove j1128 then you should
enter job_removeJOB_ID_TAG as the cancel command.
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Index
AIX, 159, 162, 173
Cray, 112
Align Stacks, 59
Cray MPT, 164
Allinea DDT
Cray X, 164
Getting Started, 20
Cray XK6, 164
Installation, 12
Cross-Process Comparison, 79
Introduction, 9
Cross-Thread Comparison, 79
Obtaining Help, 11
CUDA
Online Resources, 11
Breakpoints, 54
Starting a program, 50
CUDA Fortran, 113
Allinea MAP
DDT: CUDA, 105
Installation, 12
GPU Debugging, 105
Introduction, 10
Memory Debugging, 90
Obtaining Help, 11
NVIDIA, 105
Online Resources, 11
Running, 23
Starting, 123
Altix, 159
Data
AMD
Changing, 72
OpenCL, 167
Deadlock, 89
Apple, 18
Disk read transfer, 143
ARM, 172
Disk write transfer, 143
Attaching, 32, 109
Editor, 152
Choose Hosts, 32
End Session, 25
Command Line, 33
Environment Variables, 24
Hosts File, 33
Fencepost Checking, 96
Backtrace, 59
Font, 152
Berkeley UPC, 166
Fortran Modules, 68
Blue Gene/Q, 173
Function Listing, 42
Bounds Checking, 90
Breakpoints, 51
GPU, 105
Conditional, 53
Attaching, 109
Deleting, 53
GPU Language Support, 112
Saving, 54
Buffer Overflow, 42
Heap Overflow, 96
Bull MPI, 161
HMPP, 112
Hotkeys, 50
CAPS HMPP, 112
HP MPI, 161
Colour Scheme, 152
Complex Numbers, 69
Inf, 63
Configuration, 26
Input, 83, 131
Site Wide, 146
Installation, 12
Consistency Checking
Linux, 12
Heap, 92
Mac OS X, 14
Core FIles, 29
Text-mode Install, 13
CPU branch, 143
Windows, 14
CPU floating-point, 143
Intel Compiler, 24, 163, 168
CPU floating-point vector, 143
Intel Message Checker, 161
CPU integer, 143
Intel MPI, 161
CPU integer vector, 143
MPMD, 28
CPU memory access, 143
remote-exec, 25
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Irix, 164
MPICH 2
MPMD, 28
Job Submission, 33, 132
remote-exec, 25
Cancelling, 33, 132
MPICH 3, 162
Custom, 34
MPMD, 28
Regular Expression, 33, 132, 193
remote-exec, 25
Jump To Line, 41
mpirun
Double Clicking, 45
remote-exec, 25
MPMD
Licensing
Compatibility Mode, 29
Floating Licences, 15
Intel MPI, 28
Licence Files, 15
MPICH 2, 28
Licence Server, 154
MPICH 3, 28
Purchasing, 10
remote-exec, 130
Single Process Licence, 26, 131
Running, 28
Loadleveler, 159
MVAPICH, 162
Log file, 187
MVAPICH 2, 163
Mac OS X, 20
nvcc, 105
Macros, 68
NVIDIA Tegra 2, 172
Main Window
Overview, 38
Obtaining Help, 11
Manual Launch
Online Resources, 11
ddt-client, 27
Open MPI, 163
Debugging Multi-Process Non-MPI programs,
MPMD, 28
27
Compatibility Mode, 29
Memory Debugging, 90
OpenACC, 112
Configuration, 90
OpenCL, 105
Enabling, 24
OpenGL, 78, 79
Memory Statistics, 98
OpenMP
mprotect fails, 184
OMP NUM THREADS, 26
Memory Leak, 42
Running, 23, 26
Memory Usage, 97, 142
Oracle Grid Engine, 159
Message Queues, 87
Moab, 159
Parallel Stack View, 60
MOM nodes, 164
PBS, 159
MPI
PGI Accelerators, 113
Function Counters, 102
Plugins
History/Logging, 101
Enabling, 24
MPI Rank, 45
Pointers, 72
MPI Ranks, 81
Portland Group, 170
mpirun, 23
Pretty Printers, 70
Running, 23
Process Groups, 45
Troubleshooting, 180
Deleting, 45
MPI bytes sent / received, 142
Programming errors, 152
MPI call duration, 142
MPI point-to-point / collective operations, 143
Queue Submission, 33
MPI Init
Cancelling, 33
remote-exec, 25
Raw Command, 82
MPICH, 130
Receive queue, 89
MPICH 1
Registers
remote-exec, 25
Viewing, 81
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Remote Client, 16
Synchronizing Processes, 54
Configuration, 16
Installation
Tab size, 152
Mac OS X, 14
TORQUE, 159
Windows, 14
Tracepoints, 56
Multiple Hops, 17
Unexpected queue, 89
Remote Script, 17
UPC, 71
remote-exec
Required, 25
Variables, 43, 66
Restarting, 50
Searching, 40, 41
Running
Unused Variables, 42
MPMD, 28
Visualize Whitespace, 152
Scalar, 26
VNC, 18
Scalar
Warning Symbols, 42
Running, 26
Watchpoints, 55
Search, 40, 41
Welcome Page, 20
Send queue, 89
Welcome Screen, 123
Session
Saving, 39
X forwarding, 18
Session Menu, 50
X11, 179
SGI, 164
XK6, 164
SGI MPT
remote-exec, 25
Shared Arrays, 72
Signal Handling, 63
Divisions by zero, 63
Floating Point Exception, 63
Segmentation fault, 63
SIGFPE, 63
SIGILL, 63
SIGPIPE, 63
SIGSEGV, 63
SIGUSR1, 64
SIGUSR2, 64
Single Stepping, 50
SLURM, 166
SMP
Performance, 179
Source Code, 39, 62
Editing, 43
Missing Files, 40
Searching, 40, 41
Sparkline, 79
Stack Frame, 59
Standard Error, 83, 137
Standard Output, 83, 137
Starting MAP, 123
Static Analysis, 42
Static checking, 152
Step Threads Together, 48
Stopping, 50
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Document Outline