LISS.398A TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT and HUMAN ADAPTATION:
PART II PRE-EUROPEAN MESOAMERICA



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FORMAT

1. SPECIFICATIONS.

Appropriate format for first and final drafts of papers is described here. READ THIS MEMO AND THE PAPER ASSIGNMENT BEFORE AND AFTER PRODUCING A DRAFT OF YOUR PAPER. Check to see that your paper meets both the specifications of the paper assignement and these format specifications.

2. PARTS.

Papers may contain the following parts in the order listed. Those parts in '[ ]''s are optional. The remainder are required.

Title Page
Executive Summary
Table of Contents
Body of Report
[Figures]
Bibliography
Appendices

3. TITLE PAGE.

The title page should contain the following, centered on one page. The indication "DRAFT" should appear on first drafts.

[DRAFT]

Title of Paper
Date
Author
Course Name

4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

The executive summary should primarily describe the paper -- not the subject matter of the paper -- and how the paper responds to the assignement. It should list the conclusions of the paper in summary form, say how the fulfil the specifications of the assignment, and sketch the arguments presented to support the conclusions. This sketch should follow the major section headings of the table of contents (See below.). The executive summary should have the title "EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" centered at the top of the first page. One page of summary for every ten pages of text is a rough guide to length. No page numbers are needed unless you have more than two pages. If you need page numbers use lower case Roman numerals -- e. g. ii,iii,iv, etc..

5. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The table of contents should contain an outline of the report down to the paragraph level. It should contain page numbers. This format is exemplified by the following. Your section and paragraph titles of course depend on your subject matter.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS





I.   INTRODUCTION..............................................1

     I.0   Overview.(purpose/objectives).......................1

     I.1   History.............................................1

           I.1.0   Overview ...................................1

           I.1.1   Before 1910.................................1

           I.1.2   1910 - 1980.................................2

           I.1.3   1980 - Present..............................3

     I.2   The Problem ........................................4

           I.2.0   Overview....................................4

           I.2.1   Technical Aspects...........................4

                 I.2.1.0   Overview............................4

                 I.2.1.1   Hardware............................5

                 I.2.1.1   Software............................5

           I.2.2   Political Aspects...........................6


     I.3   Methods.............................................7

           I.3.0   Overview....................................7

                                       .
                                       .
                                       .

II.   PART ONE................................................??

                                       .
                                       .
                                       .
III.   PART TWO...............................................??

                                       .

??.    IMPLEMENTATION PLAN....................................??

??.    CONCLUSION.............................................??

FIGURES.......................................................??

     Figure 1  Map of Denver Metropolitan Area................??

     Figure 2  Denver Water Usage 1910 - 1980.................??

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                                       .
                                       .

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................??

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6. TOP-DOWN ORGANIZATION.

The above table of contents exhibits what is often called `top-down organization'. This means that the reader is first given the main conclusions and the structure of the argument for them. Then each part of the argument is explained in more detail. The explanation of each part follows the same pattern. First break the topic into parts showing how they are related; then describe each of the parts in more detail. This requires that each unit of the report have the same organizational structure. This structure is the following.

overview
sub-section 1
sub-section 2
.............
.............
.............
sub-section last

In each section, "overview" contains a summary of the section that tells what each sub-section is doing. For example, the overview section of the introduction should provide a summary description of your problem and method of approach -- the objectives for your project. Each sub_section replicates this structure. For the report as a whole, the "executive summary" plays the role of the "overview" section. For the smallest units -- paragraphs -- the first sentence, the topic sentence, plays the role of "overview". You need not always title the "overview" sections 'overview', but there should always be a section that plays the role of "overview". Sometimes you will need to use short -- even one-sentence -- paragraphs to implement this structure. This is OK.

7. BODY.

The body of the paper should follow the outline in the table of contents. Each section, sub-section and paragraph should be numbered and titled as in the table of contents. A typical paragraph should look like this.

I.1.2 1910 - 1980. During the period between 1910 and 1980 water usage in the Denver Metropolitan Area was characterized by steady growth,.......

Remember, each paragraph should deal with exactly one topic indicated in its title and described more fully in its topic sentence. References to figures should appear in the text as "(See Figure ??, p. ??)". References to the bibliography should appear in the text as "([??],p.???)" where '[??]' is the number of the relevant item in the bibliography and 'p.???' refers to the relevant page(s) in the item. (See 10. below.)

8. FIGURES.

This section should include all graphics referred to in the body of the report. Each figure should be on a separate page, titled and labeled with a figure number. Graphics in the final draft, produced by the authors should be of professional quality. Graphics produced on computer graphics system are acceptable. Hand produced graphics are acceptable only if produced with drawing and lettering instruments in ink. Free hand sketches are acceptable in first drafts. Graphics reproduced from reference sources must have the source indicated as follows:

a) If reproduced without modification;

Figure ##
TITLE
From [##], p. ##.

b) If modified by author;

Figure ##
TITLE
After [##], p. ##.

See 9) and 10) below for explanation of '[ ]'.

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

This section should contain a list of all sources of sources you found relevant to your topic together with a short paragraph describing the content of each. The description of the item should say how the item is relevant to the questions you were asked to put to the literature. The description should be in the form of a short paragraph using complete sentences. Use the following format.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Able, Alfred, BOOK TITLE. publisher, city, state, date.
This book is about architecture at Chaco Canyon, NM. It focus mainly on .... It discusses the social function of large buildings ....
[2] Baker, Bob, "Article Title". JOURNAL TITLE. volnum(numnum):firstpagenum-lastpagenum (19??).
This article deals with... .ATDT279-0550

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10. CITATIONS.

Citations to the bibliography must have the following form.

text...text. ([##], pp. ##-##) Text....

A good rule of thumb for "density" of citations is this. Provide at least one citation for each (numbered) paragraph. One citation will suffice if all the material in the paragraph was derived from a single source. If the material in the paragraph was derived from more than one source, a citation for each source is needed. Try to match up citations with material in the paragraph by putting the citations after the sentences containing material which depends on the source cited. If this is not possible, put all the citations at the end of the paragraph, as follows:

text......text. ([##], pp. ##-##, [##], pp. ##-##)

11. APPENDICIES.

Include photocopies of articles you consulted as appendicies.

12. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRST DRAFTS.

First drafts should be as complete as the state of your work permits. However, they must contain the following parts.

Title Page
Executive Summary
Table of Contents

These parts should be just as you believe they will be in the final draft. You can always change your mind.

Body of Report

This should follow the Table of Contents in the form described above. Sections or paragraphs that have not yet been completed should be described briefly with an indication how, when and by whom the work will be completed.

Bibliography

This should contain all the material you have consulted up to this point. If you can, include citations in the text.

FIRST DRAFTS COUNT 10% OF YOUR FINAL GRADE. Those failing to conform to these specifications will recieve ZERO CREDIT for this requirement. Those conforming will be evaluated for organization and evidence of thoughtful analysis in process.


Colorado School of Mines
Division of Liberal Arts and International Studies
Dr. Joseph D. Sneed
jsneed@mines.edu
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