Tracy Camp



Toilers SmartGeo CARDI


Research

Dr. Camp is the Founder and Director of the Toilers (http://toilers.mines.edu), an active ad hoc networks research group currently consisting of five faculty members, 12 graduate students, and five undergraduate students. Ad hoc networks are defined by a lack of a fixed infrastructure, multi-hop communication, unreliable wireless links, and decisions made based on local knowledge. Overcoming these challenges presents several open research questions, such as energy-efficient routing, in-network processing, adaptive behavior, and security. Applications of ad hoc networks are diverse, and include environmental monitoring, structural monitoring, search and rescue, and tracking. At the Colorado School of Mines, Dr. Camp is also the Associate Director of the Center for Automation, Robotics, and Distributed Intelligence (CARDI) and the Co-Director of SmartGeo.

Dr. Camp and her students have invented, implemented, and compared several diverse ad hoc network protocols. Simulation code developed by Dr. Camp's students have been shared with more than 2000 researchers in 73 countries (as of June 2010). For further details, see Toilers Code.

Dr. Camp has received 19 grants from the National Science Foundation, including a CAREER award in 1997. In total, her projects have received over $8.5 million dollars in external funding. For further details on Dr. Camp's research, see the Toilers web site.



Current Grants

BPC: Let's CONNECT

Details: T. Camp, "BPC: Let's CONNECT", National Science Foundation, #CNS-0940632, $598,604, April 1st, 2010 through March 31st, 2013.

Abstract: The Colorado School of Mines proposes a project to develop CONNECT (Creating Open Networks aNd Expanding Connections with Technology), a tool that provides networking assistance for attendees of conferences aimed at broadening participation. Attendees at such conferences as the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, the Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing, and the Colorado Celebration of Women in Computing, for example, consistently state that networking is an extremely valuable component of the conference. Professional networking is particularly important to underrepresented populations, as barriers to participation include a lack of mentors and the feeling of isolation that one doesn't belong. CONNECT uses technology to help BPC conference attendees develop a support network at the conference and, more importantly, sustain those connections after the conference ends. With CONNECT, attendees of a conference set networking goals prior to the event. Then, when two (or more) people want to CONNECT and exchange contact information, conference badges are scanned. CONNECT attendees also receive networking tips, a daily progress email that details which of their networking goals are being met, and suggestions on the types of people to try and meet the next day. At the end of the conference, contact information of the connections made by an attendee is shared. Feedback from an initial pilot of the system will be used to significantly improve upon the CONNECT system, adding, for example, the development of stationary CONNECT stations that do not require personnel to oversee, the ability to make a connection by transmitting a text message from a cell phone, which avoids the need to scan badges, the integration of connections with other social network systems, a face-to-face mentoring opportunity at the conference venue, a networking game component that can be used as an icebreaker, and the facilitation of forming BPC communities of individuals that share common interests. The CONNECT system will be deployed and evaluated at several different types of BPC conferences and meetings.



Broader Impacts for Research and Discovery Summit

Details: T. Camp (PI), "Broader Impacts for Research and Discovery Summit", National Science Foundation, #CNS-1033413, $214,173, April 1st, 2010 through March 31st, 2012. (Collaborators J. Gilbert at Clemson University, J. Goldsmith at University of Kentucky, and S. Khuller at University of Maryland awarded $296,432 for a total project award of $510,605.)

Abstract: This CISE special project funds the organization of the CISE Broader Impacts Summit. The goals of the summit include educating the CISE community about the NSF Broader Impacts criterion how to evaluate this criterion as part of a research project. The Summit should provide researchers and educators with the opportunity to forge collaborations and build long-term partnerships that may lead to a wide range of activities with the potential to enhance CISE research projects. The Summit is to be organized by a Steering Committee that represents all CISE divisions and a range of CISE disciplines. The investigators plan to discuss, present, and subsequently develop guidance materials for the CISE computing research community on how to effectively integrate broader impact activities into research projects.

Intellectual Merit: The intellectual merit of this project will arise from the working group discussions at the summit. At the end of the summit, a report is to be developed that synthesizes both current and future ideas in each of the five broader impact categories. This should provide research based methods for CISE investigators to connect their research and broader impacts in innovative ways.

Broader Impacts: The broader impacts of this project will arise from the computing community members, by those to whom they speak about the summit, and by those who access materials created after the summit. The project includes dissemination plans to ensure the efforts from this project have an impact on future NSF projects. The impact on future NSF projects should result in significant broader impacts from CISE research projects across all five broader impact categories.



NeTS

Details: T. Camp, "NeTS: Medium: Collaborative Research: Cooperative Beamforming for Efficient and Secure Wireless Communication", National Science Foundation, #CNS-0905513, $150,000, September 1, 2009 through August 31st, 2013. (Collaborators Athina Petropulu at Drexel University, H. Vincent Poor at Princeton University, and Zhu Han at University of Houston awarded $525,000 for a total project award of $675,000.)

Abstract: There is a growing need for wireless networks that can sustain high data rates, are robust to interference, make efficient use of battery resources, and offer secure communications. This project introduces cooperative beamforming (CB), a novel technique that enables high throughput and power efficient communications in a secure manner. CB consists of two stages. In the first stage, the sources share their data with neighboring nodes via low-power communications. Various approaches for such information sharing are considered, with a goal to minimize queuing delays, conserve energy, and achieve high throughput. In the second stage, the cooperative nodes apply a weight to the signal received during first stage, and transmit. The weights are such that a specific objective criterion (e.g., signal to interference at the destination) is maximized. In CB, although each node uses low power, all nodes together can deliver high power to a faraway destination. This increase in power offsets power reduction due to propagation attenuation. CB can be viewed as an alternative to multihop transmission and, unlike multihop transmission, does not deplete the power resources of other nodes. Since CB can achieve long distance communication, new paths can be found to improve the overall network performance. Also, CB improves network security by avoiding eavesdroppers; unlike traditional cryptographic-based protocols that operate at higher layers and are sensitive to the broadcast nature of the transmission medium, CB improves security at the physical layer. CB will be implemented on a hardware network testbed to demonstrate how the developed techniques can revolutionize wireless communications.



IGERT

Details: M. Mooney, T. Camp, E. Poeter, D. Hale, and L. Figueroa, "IGERT: Intelligent Geosystems", National Science Foundation, #DGE-0801692, $3,000,000, July 1st, 2008 through June 30th, 2013.

Abstract: This Integrative Graduate Education and Research (IGERT) award supports a Ph.D. training program at the Colorado School of Mines to pursue integrative research and education in Intelligent Geosystems. Graduate students will be trained to add real time, adaptive, sensing capabilities to the monitoring of natural or engineered earth structures, e.g., an earth dam, a ground water system, or a geoconstruction site (tunneling, urban excavation, highway); the sensor networks employed will allow a geosystem to sense its environment, diagnose its condition, and make decisions to improve the management, operation, or objective of the geosystem. The goals are to advance the development of the "intelligent" geosystems while educating and training a new generation of leaders who are able to operate effectively in this emerging interdisciplinary area. The proposed IGERT program will institute an interdisciplinary and holistic approach to trainees. Key components of this IGERT award include: (1) a multi-disciplinary collaborative research team framework to foster team development and interdisciplinary innovation in intelligent geosystem concepts; (2) a leadership and teamwork development program to train the next generation of geosystem leaders for industry, academia and government; (3) a PhD minor in social/environmental ethics & policy to broaden trainee understanding beyond the technical challenges to the social, environmental and political aspects of intelligent geosystems; (4) a self-paced cross-disciplinary technical course using modules in intelligent geosystems; and (5) an internship with a government laboratory or industry in intelligent geosystems. These five components of this IGERT program will produce diverse, highly skilled leaders with the strong social and environmental awareness required in multidisciplinary environments. IGERT is an NSF-wide program intended to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers with the interdisciplinary background, deep knowledge in a chosen discipline, and the technical, professional, and personal skills needed for the career demands of the future. The program is intended to catalyze a cultural change in graduate education by establishing innovative new models for graduate education and training in a fertile environment for collaborative research that transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries.



PAIRS

Details: T. Camp, "Practices Aggregation, Infrastructure, and Retrieval Service for Broadening Participation in Computing (PAIRS)", National Science Foundation, #CNS-0634278, $122,393, April 15, 2007 through March 31, 2011. (Collaborators L. Barker at University of Austin and A. Agogino at University of California-Berkeley awarded $539,517 for a total project award of $661,910.) Includes REU supplements received May 2008 and May 2009.

Abstract: This collaborative project builds a digital repository of educational resources and practices shown to be effective in increasing the participation of underrepresented groups in information technology. Three collaborating institutions, the University of Colorado - Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines, and the University of California - Berkeley are developing Practices Aggregation, Infrastructure, and Retrieval Service for Broadening Participation in Computing (PAIRS) resource. The project includes technical development of the resource engine as well as data organization, a rating system, and a review process. Central to the effort is the engagement of a user community to test the usability of the PAIRS resource as well as to pilot effective uses of the resource. PAIRS is to be made available to educators and others through a variety of dissemination methods and outreach programs.

The intellectual merit of this project lies in its potential to support both the research community conducting research on increasing the participation of underrepresented groups in computing as well as to provide essential evidence to those developing intervention implementations for broadening participation. The research and review in developing the best practice materials in the resource also provide a central source of effective strategies as well as a credible, research based body of information. The project team has excellent expertise in all aspects of this project and should develop a resource for which there is a great need within the computing community into which it will be integrated.

The broader impacts of the project lie with the potential to impact many projects aimed at broadening participation and thus fundamentally play a role in increasing participation in computing. While many effective practices for increasing participation in computing exist and are available, underrepresentation persists and continues to be a major challenge to developing the diverse computing workforce needed to meet our national needs for the future. PAID develops a set of quality materials and provides access and visibility to them, thus greatly increasing the opportunities for others to choose appropriate sound resources to address broadening participation in computing.





Prior Grants

NEWS

Details: T. Camp. "Characterizing Protocol Interaction in NEWS: A Network Environment Wireless State Service," National Science Foundation #ANI-0240558, June 1st, 2003 through May 31st, 2007. This project is in collaboration with V. Syrotiuk at Arizona State University.

Abstract: In this research project, we study the network and MAC layer protocol interaction in mobile ad hoc networks, in the context of a generalized location service utilizing smart antennas. A location service provides a mechanism to obtain the current position of a mobile node. We generalize this service to obtain other aspects of node state such as its local traffic characteristics, velocity, and energy usage, in addition to its location. We call our generalized service a NEWS service, for Network Environment Wireless State service, as it provides current "news", i.e., state, to the rest of the system. Such a service can improve the performance of protocols and provide information for emerging services based on location and other state information. We view this NEWS service as a sublayer of the network layer. The main goal of this project is to identify the impact of protocol interaction, both algorithmic and statistical, first in a "plug-and-play" implementation of a NEWS service wherein different network and MAC solutions are mixed and matched. Specifically, we use current location server protocols to provide the NEWS service (e.g., GLS and SLS) and current MAC protocols utilizing omnidirectional and directional antennas (e.g., IEEE 802.11, CSMA/CA, PAMAS and D-MAC) for this investigation. We are interested in the accuracy of the resulting service, and the impact on scalability and energy efficiency of the combined solution.

Related Publications:
- S. Kurkowski, T. Camp, and W. Navidi, Two Standards for Rigorous MANET Routing Protocol Evaluation, Proccedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), to appear, 2006.
- J. Powell and T. Camp, Improving Location Services with Prediction, Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN), pp. 153-159, 2006.
- S. Kurkowski, T. Camp, and M. Colagrosso, MANET Simulation Studies: The Incredibles, ACM's Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 50-61, October 2005.
- N. Bauer, M. Colagrosso, and T. Camp, An Agile Approach to Distributed Information Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), pp. 131-141, 2005.
- T. Camp, Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Handbook of Algorithms for Mobile and Wireless Networking and Computing, (editor A. Boukerche), pp. 317-339, 2005.
- X. Jiang and T. Camp, An Information Dissemination Protocol for an Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC) pp. 337-345, 2004.




Adaptive Protocols

Details: W. Navidi and T. Camp. "Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," National Science Foundation #ANI-0208352, September 1st, 2002 through August 31st, 2006.

Abstract: Although mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocols have been extensively studied and simulated in the recent past, several comparative studies have shown that there is no single protocol which works well in a wide variety of network conditions. A truly effective MANET protocol will combine the strengths of the best existing protocols while avoiding their weaknesses. An adaptive scheme that responds to the current network dynamics at each node shows promise in achieving this goal. This project concerns the development of a method to allow unicast, multicast, geocast, and location-based protocols to adapt. Overall, the goal of this project is to develop and evaluate several mobility metrics by implementing a MANET feedback agent. Our feedback agent provides real time, configurable information to any protocol on a mobile node. Using the feedback agent, we can then enable adaptivity in several existing MANET protocols.

Related Publications:
- S. Kurkowski, T. Camp, and W. Navidi, Two Standards for Rigorous MANET Routing Protocol Evaluation, Proccedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, to appear, 2006.
- S. Kurkowski, T. Camp, and M. Colagrosso, MANET Simulation Studies: The Incredibles, ACM's Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 50-61, October 2005.
- N. Bauer, M. Colagrosso, and T. Camp, An Agile Approach to Distributed Information Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), pp. 131-141, 2005.
- X. Luo, T. Camp, and W. Navidi, Predictive Methods for Location Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Workshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WMAN), pp. 246-251, 2005.
- B. Williams, D. Mehta, T. Camp and W. Navidi, Predictive Models to Rebroadcast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), vol. 3, no. 3. pp. 295-303, July 2004.
- W. Navidi, T. Camp, and N. Bauer, Improving the Accuracy of Random Waypoint Simulations Through Steady-State Initialization, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation (MS '04), pp. 319-326, 2004.
- J. Boleng and T. Camp, Adaptive Location Aided Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC '04), pp. 423-432, 2004.
- W. Navidi and T. Camp, Stationary Distributions for the Random Waypoint Mobility Model, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 99-108, 2004.
- W. Navidi and T. Camp, Predicting Node Location in a PCS Network, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC), pp. 165-170, 2004.




ALLIANCES

Details: T. Camp and M. Colagrosso (Senior Personnel). "ALLow Improved Access in the Network via Coordination and Energy Savings (ALLIANCES)," National Science Foundation #CNS-0435376, Sept 15th, 2004 through Aug. 31st, 2007. This project is in collaboration with A. Petropulu at Drexel University.

Abstract: ALLIANCES (ALLow Improved Access in the Network via Cooperation and Energy Savings) is a novel high-throughput medium access scheme for wireless networks that is suitable for bursty sources. We view the wireless network as a spatially distributed antenna, with antenna elements linked via the unreliable wireless channel. When there is a collision, the packets involved in the collision are saved in a buffer. In the slots following the collision, a set of nodes, designated as relays, form an alliance and bounce off the signal that they received during the collision slot. By processing the originally collided packets and the signals forwarded by the relays, the destination node can recover the original packets. The spatial diversity introduced via the cooperative relaying enables us to effectively deal with the wireless channel without any bandwidth expansion nor additional antenna hardware. ALLIANCES maintains the benefits of ALOHA systems in the sense that all nodes share access to media resources efficiently and without extra scheduling overhead, and enables efficient use of network power.

Related Publications:
- J. Vashishtha, T. Camp, and A. Sinha, A Smart Utilization MAC (SU-MAC) Protocol with Power Control for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the Performance, Quality of Service, and Control of Next-Generation Communication and Sensor Networks, vol. 6011, 10 pages, 2005.




Geocasting

Details: T. Camp and W. Navidi. "Development of Geocasting Protocols for a MANET," National Science Foundation #ANI-0073699, July 15th, 2000 through June 30th, 2005.

Abstract: The work in this project concerned the development and performance evaluation of protocols that offer geocast communication in an ad hoc network. The goal of a geocasting protocol is to deliver a packet to a set of nodes within a specified geographical area, i.e., the geocast region. In this project, we consider protocols that offer geocast communication to both explicitly defined groups (i.e., geocast to those mobile nodes in the geocast region that have registered with the group) and implicitly defined groups (i.e., geocast to all mobile nodes in the geocast region). We also consider both fixed geocast regions (i.e., defined by a specific geographical location) and dynamic geocast regions (i.e., defined by a dangerous moving target).

Related Publications:
- T. Camp, Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Handbook of Algorithms for Mobile and Wireless Networking and Computing, (editor A. Boukerche), pp. 317-339, 2005.
- P. Yao, E. Krohne, and T. Camp, Performance Comparison of Geocast Routing Protocols for a MANET, Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N), pp. 213-220, 2004.
- M. Colagrosso, N. Enochs, and T. Camp, Improvements to Location-Aided Routing through Directional Count Restrictions, Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN), pp. 924-929, 2004.
- P. Yao, E. Krohne, and T. Camp, Evaluation of Geocasting Protocols for a Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the Grace Hopper Celebration (GHC), 2004.
- B. Williams, D. Mehta, T. Camp and W. Navidi, Predictive Models to Rebroadcast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), vol. 3, no. 3. pp. 295-303, July 2004.
- X. Jiang and T. Camp, An Information Dissemination Protocol for an Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC) pp. 337-345, 2004.
- J. Boleng and T. Camp, Adaptive Location Aided Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC), pp. 423-432, 2004.
- T. Camp and Y. Liu, An Adaptive Mesh-based Protocol for Geocast Routing, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing: Special Issue on Routing in Mobile and Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 196-213, February 2003.
- T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Simulations, Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (WCMC): Special issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Research, Trends and Applications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002.
- J. Boleng, W. Navidi, and T. Camp, Metrics to Enable Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN), pp. 293-298, 2002.
- B. Williams and T. Camp. Comparison of Broadcasting Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), pp. 194-205, 2002
- X. Jiang and T. Camp, Review of Geocasting Protocols for a Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Grace Hopper Celebration (GHC), 2002.
- N. K. Guba and T. Camp, Recent Work on GLS: a Location Service for an Ad Hoc Network, Grace Hopper Celebration (GHC), 2002.
- T. Camp and J. Boleng and L. Wilcox, Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 3318-3324, 2002.
- T. Camp, J. Boleng, B. Williams, L. Wilcox, and W. Navidi, Performance Comparison of Two Location Based Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM ), pp. 1678-1687, 2002.
- J. Boleng, T. Camp, and V. Tolety, Mesh-based Geocast Routing Protocols in an Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium on Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing (IPDPS), pp. 184-193, April 2001.
- B. Williams, J. Boleng, and T. Camp, Geocast Communications in an Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the IEEE 11th Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Workshop (LANMAN), pp. 94-97, March 2001.
- J. Boleng, B. Williams, T. Camp, L. Wilcox, and W. Navidi, Performance of Location-Based Routing Protocols for an Ad Hoc Network, Proceedings of the IEEE 11th Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Workshop (LANMAN), pp. 98-101, March 2001.