Including Figures and Tables

figurePDF versionText only version is a graphic illustration of information, such as a line drawing, a graph, a map, a photograph, a plate, or a chart. A table is a graphic that contains a systematic arrangement of facts or numbers in rows and columns (that is, in tabular form). A table appearing in running text should show only information relevant to that text.
 
Placing a figure or table
A figure or table that covers more than a half page may be placed on its own, separate page. More than one table or figure may appear in sequence on a single page, if they represent sequential information. A figure or table included in running text must be contained on a single page and not continued to the next page. Use consistent line spacing to separate the figure or table from the preceding and following text.
 
Small, two- or three-column tables with only three or four items per column may be worked into the text without an identifying table number or caption.
 
Oversized figure or table
If a table must cover more than one page, headings for continuous columns are repeated on each page, and notes may appear either at the end of the table or on the page to which they refer. Sources appear at the bottom of the first page.
 
Figures and tables that are formatted wider than they are high may be turned to fit on the page within all margins. The entire illustration, including its caption and sources, is turned so that the top of the illustration is parallel to and just inside the regular binding-side text margin (landscape orientation). The page number should be placed at the bottom of the figure or table, on the 11”side of the page (landscape orientation). Even though the thesis is in portrait mode, the figure and page number should be in landscape mode and optimized for viewing on a computer screen.
 
A figure or table too large to fit within the 6- inch by 9-inch text area may be reduced, but its caption font must be the same size and style as that used for the text in the rest of the thesis.
 
Captions
Figures and tables are identified both by a number and by descriptive text contained in a caption. Figure numbers and captions appear below the figure, and table numbers and captions appear above the table.
 
Captions may be placed flush with the left text margin or centered between the right and left text margins, but the location of all captions must be consistent throughout the text. If a figure or table fills the entire 6-inch by 9-inch text area on a page, leaving no room for the caption, then the caption for that illustration is centered alone on a separate preceding page.
 
For multi-part figures that are spread over separate pages, the full caption should appear under the first part (a) and captions for the following parts would be labeled, i.e., “Figure 4.3b: continued.” Captions should be complete, not abbreviated.
 
Fonts
Figure and table captions must be in the same font (e.g., Times Roman) and size (e.g., 10-12 point) as that used for the text in the rest of the thesis. Single line spacing is required in captions.
 
As with figures, the font in a table matches the body text, and placement of numbers and captions must remain consistent. Notes and sources are typically placed at the bottom of the table or below the caption of a figure.
 
Note: You may use lower case superscript letters, numbers, or symbols in a table to refer to the bottom notes and sources; however, using reference symbols (such as an asterisk [*]) or letters in a table of numbers is less likely to confuse a reader than using superscript numbers.
 
Numbering a figure or table
Figures and tables are numbered consecutively throughout the text of the thesis. If numbered headings are used in the text, then a parallel numbering system is used for illustrations. For instance, the first figure in Chapter 2 would be Figure 2.1 and the following figure would be Figure 2.2, etc. Related figures may be identified either by using the same number with a lower case letter (Figure 4.3a, Figure 4.3b), or by different numbers (Figure 4.3, Figure 4.4).
 
Numbers for figures or tables that appear in appendices are preceded by the capital letter identifying the appendix, as in Figure A-3 or Table C-2.
 
Referring to a figure or table in the text
All figures and tables included in the thesis must be referred to in the text of the thesis. The first reference in the text to a figure or table must precede it. If the figure or table is incorporated in the text, then the reference is in the preceding paragraph or on the same page. If the figure or table is on a separate page, then the reference to it must be on the preceding text page. If two or more figures are referred to consecutively on one page, then they must follow on the page or the next pages consecutively.
 
The text reference should identify a figure or table by number (e.g., write, “See Figure 7.1”), rather than by a relative location (e.g., do not write, “In the following figure . . .”).