EXPORT REVIEW PROCEDURES GUIDE
Glossary of terms for Export Controls:
The Glossary is a quick reference tool. If you have any questions, please refer to the definitions in the
regulations pertaining to the export item that shall control if there is a conflict or confusion. See 15 CFR
Part 772.1 (EAR); 22 CFR Part 120 (ITAR). Some agencies may have different definitions as well.
600 Series refers to items formerly “defense articles” that moved to the CCL after Export Control Reform
and still require Licenses from Dept. of Commerce to export them. The 600 series derives its name from
the 3rd character of the ECCNs in the “xY6zz” format on the Commerce Control List (CCL) that control items
on the CCL that were previously control ed on the U.S. Munitions List or that are covered by the Wassenaar
Arrangement Munitions List (WAML). The “6” indicates the entry is a munitions entry on the CCL. The “x”
represents the CCL category and “Y” the CCL product group. The “600 series” constitutes the munitions
ECCNs within the larger CCL.
Arms Export Control Act (AECA). The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), as amended, authorizes the
U.S. President to control the export and import of Defense Articles and Defense Services. The regulations
implementing AECA are at 22 CFR 120 et. seq. The President deems the articles/services to be “Defense”
and places them on the US Munitions List.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the col ection of rules and regulations published in the Federal
Register by the US federal government executive departments/agencies. The CFR may be viewed online at
Commerce Control List (CCL) – The CCL identifies specific items subject to the list-based controls of the
Export Administration Regulations (EAR), under the export control jurisdiction of the US Department of
Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS), found in 10 CFR §774.
• Commerce Control List (CCL) Category – The CCL is divided into 10 categories, numbered 0-9:
(0) Nuclear Materials, Facilities and Equipment, and Miscellaneous; (1) Materials, Chemicals,
“Microorganisms,” and Toxins; (2) Materials Processing; (3) Electronics; (4) Computers; (5)
Telecommunications and Information Security; (6) Lasers and Sensors; (7) Navigation and Avionics;
(8) Marine; and (9) Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles, and Related Equipment.
• Commerce Control List (CCL) Group – Each of the 10 CCL categories is subdivided into five (5)
groups/kinds of controlled items, A-E:
(A) Equipment, Assemblies, and Components; (B) Test, Inspection and Production Equipment; (C)
Materials; (D) Software; and (E) Technology.
Control ed Country – Under the EAR, may refer to one of the countries subject to §746 Embargoes and
Other Special Controls, or to a country included in one of the Country Groups defined in Supplement No. 1
to §740 and used in conjunction with §740 license exceptions. Under the ITAR, may refer to a country
identified in ITAR §126.1, Prohibited Exports, Imports, and Sales to or from Certain Countries.
Deemed Export – Release of technology or source code subject to the EAR to a foreign national in the
United States is “deemed” an “export” to the home country of the foreign national under the EAR. ITAR
harmonized the definition (9/1/2016) to clarify that disclosing (or transferring) technical data subject to the
ITAR to any non-US person is deemed to be an “export” to al countries in which the foreign person holds or
has held citizenship or holds permanent residency (whether the foreign person is in the United States or
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abroad) (ITAR §120.17(a)(5)). This is a central export compliance concern for U.S. universities with
international students, scholars, and faculty. See also Export; and 15 CFR §730.5(b) The sending or taking
of technical data out of the U.S. to a foreign person employee remains an “export” if under ITAR
jurisdiction. (BIS provides the deemed export is to the foreign national’s most recent country of citizenship
or country of residency; State provides the deemed export may go back to the foreign national’s place of
Defense Article – Any item or technical data designated in the ITAR's United States Munitions List (USML),
including any technical data recorded or stored in any physical form, models, mock-ups, or other items that
reveal technical data directly relating to a “defense article” listed in the USML; Defense Article also includes
forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such as extrusions and machined bodies, that have
reached a stage in manufacturing where they are clearly identifiable by mechanical properties, material
composition, geometry, or function as defense articles. “Defense Article” does not include basic marketing
information on function, purpose, or general system descriptions. (22 CFR §120.6).
Defense Service – Furnishing assistance (including training) anywhere (inside the United States or abroad)
to foreign nationals in connection with the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production,
assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing,
or use of defense articles; 2) furnishing to foreign persons any ITAR-control ed “technical data” anywhere,
requires authorization from the State Department; or 3) military training of foreign units & forces (regular &
irregular) including formal or informal instruction of foreign persons (in the US or abroad) or by
correspondence courses, technical, educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training
aid, orientation, training exercise, and military advice. (22 CFR §120.9).
Note: While transfer of public domain information is not a defense service, the State Department
noted in 2013 that "it is seldom the case that a party can aggregate public domain data for purposes of
application to a defense article without using proprietary information or creating a data set that itself is not
in the public domain." [78 FR 31445].
Denied Persons or Party. A list of individuals and entities that have been denied export privileges. Any
dealings with a party on this list that would violate the terms of its denial order are prohibited. See also
Dual-use – Items that have both commercial and military (e.g., defense) application. Items subject to the
EAR are often referred to as "dual-use" civil applications as well as terrorism and military or weapons of
mass destruction (WMD)-related applications; MIT identifies that the Dual-Use items in the Commerce
Control List is very similar to the "Lists of Dual-Use Goods and Technologies" of the multilateral Wassenaar
Arrangement (export controls for Conventional Arms and Dual Use Goods and Technologies), to which the
U.S. and approximately 40 other countries are parties. See EAR, 15 CFR §730.3
Encryption Items. Under EAR, the phrase encryption items include all encryption commodities, software,
and technology that contain encryption features and are subject to the EAR. This does not include
encryption items specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted or modified for military applications
(including command, control and intel igence applications) that are control ed by the Department of State
on the U.S. Munitions List (ITAR). (See 15 CFR 772.1, Definitions; See also Mass Market/Exception)
End-to-End Encryption under the EAR is (i) the provision of cryptographic protection of data such
that the data are not in unencrypted form between an originator (or the originator’s in-country security
boundary) and an intended recipient (or the recipient’s in-country security boundary), and (i ) the means of
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decryption are not provided to any third party. The originator and the recipient may be the same person.
Transmissions within a cloud service infrastructure also fit within this Safe Harbor provision when the
transmission is made from one node or cloud infrastructure element to another, provided that it was
appropriately encrypted before any data crossed a national border.
End-use(r) – The EAR controls the export of al items subject to the EAR, even those not subject to list-
based controls, if they will finally be received by certain entities or used for certain applications.
Embargo – The export of defense articles or services may be restricted or banned to certain countries. The
Department of State continuously updates the listings. See Country Policies and Embargoes.
Export – An actual shipment or transmission of items, services, or technical data subject to either EAR or
ITAR outside of the United States, general y by sending or taking that item out of the US. Alternatively, the
release (disclosure) of technology (EAR), software source code (EAR), or technical data (ITAR) to a non-U.S.
person in the United States may qualify as an export. (See also Deemed Export.) See regulations for EAR @
https://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/regulations/export-administration-regulations-ear or see eCFR.
Technology, software, or technical data is “released” or “disclosed” through:
1. Visual inspection by a foreign national of U.S. origin equipment and facilities;
2. Oral exchanges of information (e.g. or a demonstration of technology) in the United States or
abroad; See 15 CFR §730.5(c)
3. Transfer or shipment via any means (physical or electronic) to a foreign entity (e.g., even the return
of a product to a foreign country after repair in the U.S. under the EAR 15 CFR 730.5(C); or the
electronic transmission of non-public information received abroad); or
4. Provision of a service (e.g., “defense service”) or the application to situations abroad of personal
knowledge or technical experience acquired in the United States.
See 22 CFR 120.17 – Export under ITAR; See also Re-export.
Export Administration Regulations (EAR) – The Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR §730–774
are promulgated by the Department of Commerce to regulate the export of most items not control ed by
the ITAR (defense items). "Items" includes products; equipment required to make control ed products or
materials; materials required to make controlled products; software required to develop, produce, or use
control ed items; and information required to develop, product, or use controlled items. Items specifically
not control ed by the EAR include those control ed by another U.S. government department (items to
embargoed countries, nuclear reactor items and technology, patent applications) and publicly available
information, informational materials, software and technology.
Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) – a five-character alphanumeric classification used under the
EAR to identify items on the Commerce Control List.
• EAR 99 - EAR99 is a classification for an item. EAR99 class is used when a particular item is subject
to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), but the item is not listed with a specific Export
Control Classification Number (ECCN) on the Commerce Control List (CCL). While the classification
describes the item, the authorization for shipment of that item may change, depending on the
transaction, or the country or party to which you are shipping the item, or if the end-use is
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• 600 Series – The “600 Series” is the ECCN grouping on the Commerce Control List. Items that are
controlled under the 600 Series were formerly on the US Munitions List or under the Wassenaar
Arrangement Munitions List (WAML) and were moved to the CCL list. The 600 Series includes items
that formerly were on the ECCN list in this series and ended in -018. Thus, 600 Series includes
munitions that are now on the CCL. Examples may include certain aircraft, gas turbine engines,
vessels of war, tanks/military vehicles, submersible vessels, etc.
Export License – The approval documentation issued by an export agency authority authorizing the
recipient to proceed with the export, re-export, or other regulated activity as specified on the application.
Foreign National - The EAR uses, but does not define, "foreign national". "National" is defined in 8 USC
1101(a) (20) as "a person owing permanent allegiance to a state". The net effect of EAR is comparable to
the ITAR "foreign person": the deemed export rule, for instance, applies to "foreign nationals," but excludes
permanent residents and protected individuals.
Foreign Person – Under ITAR, a natural person who is neither a lawful permanent resident (green card
holder) nor a protected individual (citizen or national of the U.S., special agricultural worker, admitted
refugee, or person granted asylum), a foreign entity (corporations, business associations, partnerships, etc.)
not incorporated or organized to do business in the U.S., an international organization, a foreign
government or an agency or subdivision of a foreign government. See 22 CFR §120.16; Person means a
natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity,
organization or group, including governmental entities. If a provision under ITAR does not refer exclusively
to a foreign person (§120.16) or U.S. person (§120.15), then it refers to both.
Fundamental Research – (basic or applied) research in science, engineering, or mathematics, where the
resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific/research community and
for which the researchers have not accepted restrictions on publication for proprietary or national security
reasons, is excluded from export controls.
• FRE under EAR (15 CFR §734.8), university research normally will be considered Fundamental
Research, unless the university or its researchers accept sponsor restrictions on the publication of
scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity. Research at companies or
outside the US can qualify as Fundamental Research when there are no restrictions on publishing
the results. The EAR specifically permits limited prepublication reviews by research sponsors to
prevent the inadvertent divulging of proprietary information provided to the researcher by the
sponsor or to ensure that publication wil not compromise the patent rights of the sponsor.
• FRE under ITAR (22 CFR §120.11(8)), only research at accredited institutions of higher learning in
the U.S. can qualify as “fundamental”. University research will not qualify as Fundamental
Research if: (1) the information is not generally published and shared broadly within the scientific
community (e.g., the university or its researchers accept any restrictions on the publication of
scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity); or (2) the research is
federally-funded and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting
from the research have been accepted by the university or the researcher.
General y Authorized – DoE's 10 CFR 810 and OFAC's sanctions programs identify activities which are in the
scope of the controls, but are already determined to be acceptable and can be conducted without
additional approval as "generally authorized". The DoE regulations require the use of a general license to be
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Import(s) means all goods physically brought into the United States, including: (1) Goods of foreign origin,
and (2) Goods of domestic origin returned to the United States without substantial transformation affecting
a change in tariff classification under an applicable rule of origin. See Trade Definitions at the U.S. Census
International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (ITAR) – The International Trafficking in Arms Regulations
(ITAR), 22 CFR §120-130, promulgated by the Department of State, control the export of articles, services,
and related technical data whose predominant application is defense, as determined by the State
Department. These “defense articles,” “defense services,” and related “technical data” are listed on the
United States Munitions List (USML). Satellites and spacecraft are subject to ITAR (since 1999), regardless
of application. In November 2014, satellites and spacecraft not providing capabilities listed on the USML
moved to EAR control, although under new, more restricted, "500 series" classifications, and still requires
Jurisdiction means the power or authority an agency (or department of the U.S. government) maintains in
determining what is al owable under the laws of the U.S. constitution or under statutes enacted by the U.S.
License refers to a government (agency) document or approval authorizing the export of specific items
(including technology) in specific quantities to a particular destination(s). A license may be required for
most or all exports to some countries, while other countries may only require licenses to export
items/technology under special circumstances.
Mass Market typically means available widely and at storefronts, through the internet, or otherwise. The
Mass Market Exemption means that the technology, product, or services qualify for Mass Market status as
defined by the Cryptography Note of the CCL. However, some restrictions still exist on cryptography
products, especial y regarding certain nations or denied persons. Where the product qualifies and there are
no other limitations of end-use/user, no further license in respect to EAR is required. Note the first time
that the request is made to BIS must be requested through a SNAP-R filing. (Wassenaar formally approved
the exemption for use regarding hardware components.)
Military end use means incorporation into a military item described on the U.S. Munitions List (USML)
(ITAR, 22 CFR part 121); incorporation into a military item described on the Wassenaar Arrangement
Munitions List (at http://www.wassenaar.org); incorporation into items classified under ECCNs ending in
“A018” or under “600 series” ECCNs; or for the “use,” “development,” or “production” of military items
described on the USML or the Wassenaar Arrangement Munitions List, or items classified under ECCNs
ending in “A018” or under “600 series” ECCNs. 'Military end use' also means deployment of items classified
under ECCN 9A991 as set forth in supplement no. 2 to part 744. 15 CFR 744.21(f.)
Military end use (EAR, 15 CFR 744.21) the following applies:
• “use” means operation, installation (including on-site installation), maintenance (checking), repair,
overhaul and refurbishing;
• “development” is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as: design, design research,
design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes,
design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration
design, layouts; and
• “production” means al production stages, such as: product engineering, manufacturing,
integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, and quality assurance.
• “operation” means to cause to function as intended;
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• “installation” means to make ready for use, and includes connecting, integrating, incorporating,
loading software, and testing;
• “maintenance” means performing work to bring an item to its original or designed capacity and
efficiency for its intended purpose, and includes testing, measuring, adjusting, inspecting, replacing
parts, restoring, calibrating, overhauling; and
• “deployment” means placing in battle formation or appropriate strategic position.
Military end user means the national armed services (army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard), as
well as the national guard and national police, government intelligence or reconnaissance
organizations, or any person or entity whose actions or functions are intended to support 'military end
uses' as defined in paragraph (f) of this section. See 744.21(g)
Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) – A part of the U.S. Department of Treasury that administers and
enforces economic embargoes and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals
against targeted foreign countries, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, and those engaged in
activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. OFAC acts under presidential wartime
and national emergency powers, as well as authority granted by specific legislation, to impose controls on
transactions and freeze foreign assets under U.S. jurisdiction.
Public Domain – Under ITAR (§120.11), public domain means information that is published and that is
generally accessible or available to the public through/at the following:
(1) sales at newsstands and bookstores;
(2) subscriptions that are available without restriction to any individual who desires to obtain or
purchase the published information;
(3) mailing privileges (second-class) granted by the U.S. government;
(4) libraries open to the public or from which the public may obtain documents, including most
(5) published patents;
(6) unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or exhibition, generally
accessible to the public, in the United States;
(7) public release in any form after approval by the cognizant U.S. government department or
(8) fundamental research in science, engineering, and mathematics at accredited institutions of
higher learning in the United States where the resulting information is ordinarily published and
shared broadly in the scientific community. Public domain information is excluded from ITAR
technical data controls.
(Public domain information is excluded from control as ITAR technical data.)
Open Source is not “public domain” as referenced in intellectual property (IP) rights, because an
owner provides the software or technology, although available publicly and generally accessible, it
is still only provided under a grant of rights (license). Thus, it cannot be “public domain”
Publicly Available –under the EAR, refers to “publicly available technology and software” and does not use
the expression “public domain.” To be Publicly Available, and generally excluded from EAR controls, the
• software and technology (with limited exception) that (i) are, or will be, published; (ii) arise during,
or result from, fundamental research; (iii) are educational; or (iv) are included in certain patent
applications. (Publicly available software and technology are excluded from EAR controls, however
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published 5D002 encryption software remains subject to the EAR; some publicly available 5D002
encryption object code may be publicly available when the corresponding source code is publicly
available.) For software and technology in the scope of the EAR, it may be made publicly available
by a person with the right to do so without further authorization from the Commerce Department
(except 5D002 encryption software). See 15 CFR Part 734.3(b)(3).
• Information is generally accessible to the interested public in any form and thus not subject to the
EAR. See 15 CFR Part 732.
Published – Under the EAR, information is “published” when it becomes general y accessible to the
interested public in any form, including:
1. periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to
any member of the public or to a community of persons interested in the subject matter,
such as those in a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at a price that does not
exceed the cost of reproduction and distribution;
2. ready availability at libraries open to the public or at university libraries;
3. patents and open (published) patent applications available at any patent office; and
4. Release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering.
5. Software and information is published when either it is available for general distribution
free or at a price that does not exceed the cost of reproduction and distribution.
(Note: published 5D002 encryption software remains subject to the EAR, except publicly available 5D002
encryption object code when the corresponding source code is publicly available.
Re-export or Re-transfer– Under EAR a re-export refers to an actual shipment or the transmission of items
subject to export regulations from one foreign country to another foreign country. For the purposes of the
EAR, the export or re-export of items that will transit through a country or countries to a new country, or
that are intended for re-export to the new country, are deemed to be Exports to the new country. See 15
CFR §730.5. The transfer of items subject to ITAR jurisdiction between two foreign countries is an
export/re-export/re-transfer of defense articles or defense services to an end-use, end-user, or destination
not previously authorized by license, written approval or exemption. (Any movement of a defense article
between two foreign countries is a “re-export” and requires authorization.) See 22 CFR 120.19.
Release under EAR covers activities that disclose information to foreign persons. See 15 CFR 734.15. Under
ITAR (22 CFR 120.50), activities allowing a foreign person to “inspect” a defense article in a way that reveals
technical data to that person and oral/written exchanges of technical data are “releases” and thus under
export control laws. (This excludes simple size or weight information, and simple attributes.)
Technical data is Released (under ITAR) through: (1) Visual or other inspection by foreign persons of
a defense article that reveals technical data to a foreign person; or (2) Oral or written exchanges with
foreign persons of technical data in the United States or abroad.
A foreign person (under EAR) having theoretical or potential access to technology or software is
similarly not a “release” because such access, by definition, does not reveal technology or software.
Restricted Parties – Individuals and entities with whom the university and its employees may be prohibited
by law, or that require a license or other government approval, to export to or engage in controlled
transactions. These include the Denied Persons List, Entity List, and Unverified List (Dept. of Commerce);
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the Debarred Parties Lists (Department of State); and the Specialy Designated Nationals (SDN) and Blocked
Persons List (Department of Treasury).
Restricted Research – Defined as university research, development, or testing subject to: (i) publication
restrictions; (ii) access and dissemination controls; (iii) federally funded research with contract-specific
national security restrictions; (iv) accepting third-party controlled items or information; or (v) providing
access to, or defense services on, a defense article. Restricted research is subject to EAR and ITAR
regulations, and a license or other government approval may be required for foreign national participation.
Sanctioned Countries – Countries designated by OFAC as having limited or comprehensive trade sanctions
imposed by the United States for reasons of anti-terrorism, non-proliferation, narcotics trafficking, or other
Significant Military Equipment (SME) means articles for which special export controls are warranted
because of their capacity for substantial military utility or capability. (ITAR)
Special y designed - Some items are subject to the ITAR or the EAR if they have properties, as a result of
development, that meet or exceed the criteria in the US Munitions List (ITAR) or the Commerce Control List
(EAR) — this is the "catch" — and are not a fastener or other low-control item — this is the "release". There
are web tools for the ITAR and the EAR to help determine whether an item is "special y designed".
Statutory means enacted, regulated, or authorized by statute. E.g., when a government action is required
by law, the action is statutory if passed by Congress and signed into law by the President.
Technical Assistance – Under the EAR, instruction, skil s training, working knowledge, and consulting
services, which may involve the transfer of technical data, may be technical assistance This is similar to the
ITAR's "defense service" definition and under ITAR there can be Technical Assistance Agreements, which
authorize transferring technical data and providing defense services.
Technical Data – (22 CFR §120.10) Refers to information required for the design, development, production,
manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance, or modification of controlled articles. This
includes information in the form of blueprints, drawings, plans, instructions, diagrams, photographs, etc. It
may take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and
specifications, and manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk,
tape, or read-only memories. The ITAR definition does not include information concerning general
scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges, and universities, or
information in the public domain.
Technology – Any specific information and know-how (whether in tangible form, such as models,
prototypes, drawings, sketches, diagrams, blueprints, manuals, or software—or in intangible form, such as
training or technical services) that is required for the development, production, or use of a good, but not
the good itself.
Transfer - Under ITAR, a “Re-transfer” occurs when there is a change in the item’s end user or end use
within the same country. Authorization will still be required to provide a defense article to a subcontractor
or intermediate consignees in the same country (unless previously authorized, e.g., via TAA), as that would
constitute a change in end user and end use. Certain activities, such as disclosures of technical data to a
foreign national abroad, may be covered by the new definitions of both “reexport” and “retransfer.”
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U.S. Munitions List (USML) – (22 CFR §121.1) The USML includes articles, services, and related technical
data designated as defense articles and defense services pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act (AECA).
U.S. Person – Under the ITAR, a natural person who is a lawful permanent resident (green card holder) or a
protected individual (citizen or national of the U.S., special agricultural worker, admitted refugee or person
granted asylum); or any entity (corporation, business association, partnership, etc.) incorporated in the
U.S., or any federal, state, or local governmental entity. The EAR is effectively the same, although without
explicit definition: the deemed export rule, for instance, applies to "foreign nationals," but excludes
permanent residents and protected individuals. (Note that for the purpose of §744.6 Restrictions on Certain
Activities of U.S. Persons, the EAR adds "any person in the United States".) [Usage note: this website uses
"non-U.S. person" as an objective counterpart to "foreign person" for clarity when being read by people of
Visual Compliance refers to the software package that Mines utilizes to review persons or entities that may
be on the Denied Persons list as collected from Department of Commerce and other agencies. Contact ORA
for questions or access to this tool.
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EXPORT REVIEW PROCEDURES GUIDE